The Cumulative Effect of Criminogenic Facilities on Crime on Street Segments: A Replication of Groff & Lockwood's (2014) Study




Ghosh, Arindam

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This research tested the relationship between crime counts at street segments and exposure of these street segments to four types of criminogenic facilities, namely bars, bus stops, drug treatment centers and non-elementary schools, while controlling for sociodemographic factors such as ethnic heterogeneity, concentrated disadvantage and residential stability, and structural factors such as street segment type (road class). It is a partial replication study of the original study by Groff and Lockwood (2014), which was based on the Philadelphia. This study’s site location was San Antonio. The findings provided support for the hypotheses that the increased cumulative exposure of a street segment to facilities (bars, bus stops, schools and treatment centers) results in increased crime counts. Of the four facilities tested, the results observed for bars and bus stops are in accordance with crime pattern theory. The results also support the hypothesis that the effect of these facility exposures on crime decreases with increasing distance from the street segment. An additional exposure variable was created to test the effect of alcohol sales volume on crime. The bar sales distance weighted activity (DWA) measured the exposure level of a street segment to the amount of distance weighted sales dollars (in millions of USD). Including this DWA variable did not have a marked effect on the measured exposure effect magnitude of bars on crimes. Sensitivity checks were also included: for edge effects, time of offense for bars (weekends vs. non-weekends), and one with the inclusion of a population density variable, to account for the major differences in population density between the two cities. Controlling for population density did not produce any noticeable difference in results while bars were found to have a greater exposure effect on crime during weekend nights than during any other times. Accounting for edge effects resulted in the exposure effects for bars and bus stops decreasing slightly, while those for schools and treatment centers increasing slightly. The findings of this study call for crime prevention planning efforts that narrowly target the placement, land use, and regulation of such facilities, namely, bars, bus stops, treatment centers, and schools. Further research on analyzing the temporal rhythms in the context of facility exposure and crime is suggested.



facilities, street crime, crime pattern theory, exposure effects, Criminal Justice and Criminology


Ghosh, A. (2023). The cumulative effect of criminogenic facilities on crime on street segments: A replication of Groff and Lockwood's (2014) Study (Unpublished dissertation). Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.


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