Body Image In Men and Women: Gender Roles, Competitiveness, and Appearance-Related Emotions




Kew, Dolan

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Body image is understood to be an issue involving multiple genders, social comparison and competition. Therefore, this study aims to learn more about feelings related to healthy body image in men and women by examining the relationships among gender roles, competitiveness, and emotions related to body appearance. I predicted positive correlations between masculinity and competitiveness and between competitiveness and negative body-related emotions. College students (220 female, 60 male, and 2 other) were surveyed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Competitive Orientations Measure, and Body and Appearance-related Self-conscious Emotions Scale. Masculinity was positively correlated with the four subscales of competitiveness as well as authentic and hubristic pride in males and females together as well as separately. Each of the four competitiveness subscales was significantly positively correlated with hubristic pride for both genders together and separately, while only two of the four subscales were correlated with authentic pride. Competitiveness was most likely positively correlated with body-related pride because of a self-serving bias. Both maladaptive and adaptive functions may be associated with this finding. Further research is needed exploring positive body image in order to understand how to distinguish and promote healthy and adaptive positive body image.



gender roles, body image, competitiveness, masculinity, shame, guilt, pride, hubris, Honors College


Kew, D. G. (2015). Body image in men and women: Gender roles, competitiveness, and appearance-related emotions (Unpublished thesis). Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.


Rights Holder

Rights License

Rights URI