Reflections on Teaching and Research in Russian Geographical Education: Pedagogical Technologies
Dushina, Iraida V.
The Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education
Research on pedagogy in teaching geography in Russia has focused on the modern principle of individual-oriented teaching. The approach requires taking into account the psycho-physiological nature of students and employing a research design that is aligned with classroom practices. Such an approach permits the researcher to investigate the roles of teachers and students relative to achievement based on clearly stated outcomes. The pedagogical research agendas are actively developed using the latest advancements in psychology, information science, cognitive theory and activity control. Control of the student learning activities is closely connected with the psychology of development and has resulted in the introduction of new pedagogical technologies into teaching and learning. It is widely accepted in Russia today that pedagogical practices must extend well beyond the explanatory, demonstrative and reproductive elements of knowledge that was the mainstay of schooling just a few years earlier. However, introduction of teaching technologies does not mean that they replace the traditional methods. The more modern technologies in the individual oriented teaching are not used instead of traditional teaching methods, but simultaneously integrated when they are essential to the subject methods. Teaching technology depends to a large extent on the controllability of the educational process. Under the “teaching technology” the teachers are introduced to ways of increasing pedagogical effectiveness and designing educational processes that have clearly prescribed outcomes. The term “technology” is sometimes used instead of teaching method, but they are generally interchanged and reflect the degree to which modem instruments are used in the classroom. In the research reported here, the conceptions are different: a) teaching technology that means development of optimal teaching methods, and b) technology in technical tutorials (computer programs including multimedia textbooks on geography). While using a computer in teaching provides opportunities to include special documents such as rare maps and satellite photos, they are considered teaching technologies within pedagogy. However in both cases it is assumed that using technologies is aimed to perfect student engagement in the topic while solving the didactic problem introduced by the teacher.
pedagogical technologies, teaching technology
Dushina, I. V. (2002). Reflections on teaching and research in Russian geographical education: Pedagogical technologies. Research in Geographic Education, 4(1), pp. 5-8.