Establishing patterns in vegetation associations of the Fountain Darter Etheostoma fonticola in the San Marcos and Comal rivers of Texas
Edwards, Christa R.
Aquatic vegetation provides many services for aquatic habitats and fish communities. The Fountain Darter Etheostoma fonticola, found only in spring systems of the San Marcos and Comal rivers in central Texas, is reported to associate with vegetation for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. Descriptions of associations with vegetation range from preferred to exclusive, whereas other studies describe Fountain Darters found outside of vegetation. Purposes of this study were to quantify Fountain Darter occurrences and abundances among vegetated habitats using the concept of obligate and facultative habitat use. Wadeable and non-wadeable habitats among multiple reaches of the San Marcos and Comal rivers were sampled with seines and scuba methods in the spring and fall from 2014 to 2019. Fountain Darters were often associated with aquatic vegetation but demonstrated both obligate and facultative tendencies. Fountain Darters occurred in vegetation more than expected among wadeable and non-wadeable habitats in majority of reaches within the San Marcos and Comal rivers, but there were no clear patterns in type of vegetation used. Current vegetation management in both rivers includes the removal of non-native and restoration of native vegetation, so understanding the patterns of Fountain Darter associations with vegetation will guide in future management and restoration efforts of these spring systems.
Fountain Darter, Vegetation, San Marcos, Comal, Springs
Edwards, C. R. (2021). <i>Establishing patterns in vegetation associations of the Fountain Darter Etheostoma fonticola in the San Marcos and Comal rivers of Texas</i> (Unpublished thesis). Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.