Hospital Price Transparency Perceptions and Observations in the United States: A Rapid Review




Lieneck, Cristian H.
Darty, Kaven
Huddleston, Caitlin
Kreczmer, Jason
Lambdin, Stacy
Young, Dylan

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International Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR)


Background and Objectives: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) began implementing the Hospital Price Transparency Rule in 2019, requiring all participating hospitals to publish their chargemasters online (gross charges) for all services provided. Policy implementation at the organization level has been questionable, with patients and health care consumers left interpreting detailed hospital financial information available online. The research objective was to investigate price transparency perceptions and observations since the introduction of shoppable services price transparency mandates in 2021. Materials and Methods: Reviewers conducted a rapid review and identified and analyzed 20 articles and identified common themes. Results and Conclusions: Four underlying constructs surrounding hospital price transparency were identified: compliance and non-compliance with the CMS (2019) price transparency rule, pricing disparities, and accessibility/usability of public pricing information. The results of this rapid review provide insight for improving health service price transparency for the health care consumer and the potential limiting of follow-on surprise billing practices, while also helping to adapt policy on future price transparency initiatives.



price transparency, price estimate, charge master, surprise billing, hospital, Health Administration


Lieneck, C. H., Darty, K., Huddleston, K., Kreczmer, J., Lambdin, S., & Young, D. (2022). Hospital price transparency perceptions and observations in the United States: A rapid review. International Journal of Academic and Applied Research, 6(7), pp. 27–46.


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