Developmental Educators’ Perspectives of Online Teaching and Learning Within a Community of Inquiry Framework




Shinn, Holly

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This study explored the perceptions of sixty-five developmental education instructors who taught mathematics, reading/writing, English, learning frameworks, or corequisite online courses. Community of Inquiry was used as a conceptual framework to guide analyses. Nonparametric tests revealed statistically significant differences on course structure (teaching presence), comfort of engagement (social presence), and resolution (cognitive presence) between instructors prepared for online instruction and participants who transferred online due to COVID-19 (emergency remote). Statistically significant differences were also found between participants who taught asynchronous and synchronous instruction (mostly emergency remote) on comfort of engagement. Open coding results revealed participants who taught synchronous instruction endured more challenges than successes when trying to get students to engage in online discussions. Results implied effective online instruction may require educators to constantly change teaching practices to meet student needs. Also, preparedness for online teaching may influence online success. Recommendations for future research are discussed.



developmental education, online teaching, community of inquiry, emergency remote, online instruction, instructor perspectives, postsecondary education learning environments, asynchronous, synchronous, online communication methods


Shinn, H. (2023). Developmental educators’ perspectives of online teaching and learning within a community of inquiry framework (Unpublished dissertation). Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.


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