Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and FruArg on Gene Expression and Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-activated Microglial Cells




Song, Hailong
Lu, Yuan
Qu, Zhe
Mossine, Valeri
Martin, Matthew B.
Hou, Jie
Cui, Jiankun
Peculis, Brenda A.
Mawhinney, Thomas
Cheng, Jianlin

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Nature Research


Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement on account of its protective effects against oxidative stress and inflammation. But less is known about specific molecular targets of AGE and its bioactive components, including N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). Our recent study showed that both AGE and FruArg significantly attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells. This study aims to unveil effects of AGE and FruArg on gene expression regulation in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. Results showed that LPS treatment significantly altered mRNA levels from 2563 genes. AGE reversed 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by LPS, whereas FruArg accounted for the protective effect by reversing expression levels of 55% of genes altered by LPS. Key pro-inflammatory canonical pathways induced by the LPS stimulation included toll-like receptor signaling, IL-6 signaling, and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway, along with elevated expression levels of genes, such as Il6, Cd14, Casp3, Nfkb1, Hmox1, and Tnf. These effects could be modulated by treatment with both AGE and FruArg. These findings suggests that AGE and FruArg are capable of alleviating oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory responses stimulated by LPS in BV-2 cells.



aged garlic extract, FruArg, gene expression, signaling pathways, lipopolysaccharide-activated, microglial cells, Chemistry and Biochemistry


Song, H., Lu, Y., Qu, Z., Mossine, V. V., Martin, M. B., Hou, J., Cui, J., Peculis, B. A., Mawhinney, T. P., Cheng, J., Greenlief, C. M., Fritsche, K., Schmidt, F. J., Walter, R. B., Lubahn, D. B., Sun, G. Y., & Gu, Z. (2016). Effects of aged garlic extract and FruArg on gene expression and signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells. Scientific Reports, 6: 35323.


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