A Smart Circular Economy for Integrated Organic Hydroponic-Aquaponic Farming




Chowdhury, Hribhu

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With the global problem of population growth and climate change, current challenges to traditional agriculture include a long-term decline in the available arable land, soil depletion, water scarcity, and food security. To mitigate these challenges, agricultural methods must undergo a significant transformation to become more efficient and environmentally sustainable. Soilless agriculture particularly, vertical farming provides the best possible solution to these growing problems. With the growth of vertical farming, it has been evident that many investors have gone out of business because of high investment costs, high maintenance costs, high energy costs and high labor costs, and high waste generation. This research expanded the integrated organic hydroponic-aquaponic farming system and investigated the feasibility of a zero-waste circular economy to find parameters for the profitability of the system through zero waste and reduced operational costs, byproduct utilization, balancing the capacities, and product selection. The research utilized technology, technical knowledge, and the proposed integrated hydroponic-aquaponic circular model to convert the traditional vertical farming method to a zero-waste circular economy opportunity by using hydroponic plant waste, aquaponic waste, vermicompost tea, and aerobic compost tea/quick compost on the growth of halophyte plants. This study proposes a circular economy model for vertical farming that can contribute to the development of a sustainable agricultural system. The simulation study justified the research objectives and demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed model. The model has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural sector by providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to food production, resource conservation, and economic growth through minimizing waste and maximizing the use of resources. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable insights into the development of a more environmentally friendly and economically viable vertical farming process.



vertical farming, hydroponic-aquaponic farming, zero-waste circular economy, resource optimization, simulation, sustainability


Chowdhury, H. (2023). A smart circular economy for integrated organic hydroponic-aquaponic farming (Unpublished thesis). Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.


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