Outpatient Telehealth Implementation in the United States during the COVID-19 Global Pandemic: A Systematic Review




Lieneck, Cristian H.
Weaver, Eric
Maryon, Thomas

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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute


Background and objectives: Ambulatory (outpatient) health care organizations continue to respond to the COVID-19 global pandemic using an array of initiatives to provide a continuity of care and related patient outcomes. Telehealth has quickly become an advantageous tool in assisting outpatient providers in this challenge, which has also come with an adaptation of U.S. government policy, procedures, and, as a result, organizational protocols surrounding the delivery of telehealth care. Materials and methods: This systematic review identified three primary facilitators to the implementation and establishment of telehealth services for the outpatient segment of the United States health care industry: patient engagement, operational workflow and organizational readiness, and regulatory changes surrounding reimbursement parity for telehealth care. Results: Researchers identified three barriers impacting the implementation and use of telehealth resources: patient telehealth limitations, lack of clinical care telehealth guidelines, and training, technology, and financial considerations. Conclusions: This systematic review’s identified facilitators and barriers for telehealth implementation initiatives in the United States can assist future outpatient providers as the global pandemic and associated public health initiatives such as physical distancing continue.



ambulatory care, outpatient care, telehealth, COVID-19, pandemic, implementation, Health Administration


Lieneck, C., Weaver, E., & Maryon, T. (2021). Outpatient telehealth implementation in the United States during the COVID-19 global pandemic: A systematic review. Medicina, 57(5), 462.


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