Prioritizing Protection by Face Masks during COVID-19: The Application of Customer Open Innovation




Liang, Yuli
Hustvedt, Gwendolyn
Miller, Jasmine

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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute


This research investigated consumers’ purchase intention and preferences for face masks during the COVID-19 global pandemic. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework. Empirical data (with 215 valid responses) were collected nationwide from the United States via Qualtrics Panel services. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multi-group comparison (chi-square difference) were used to estimate construct validity and test the proposed hypotheses and theoretical framework. Results indicated that consumers’ purchase intention towards face masks was predicted by consumers’ attitude towards functional attributes, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. But, in contrast with previous research, purchase intention was not predicted by attitudes towards aesthetic attributes and attitude towards social attributes. Purchase intention positively influenced consumers’ actual purchase behavior towards face masks. Workplace association moderated the path from social attitudes to purchase intention. Based on these results, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.



COVID-19, pandemic, TPB, purchase intention, face masks, open innovation, Family and Consumer Sciences


Liang, Y., Hustvedt, G., & Miller, J. (2022). Prioritizing protection by face masks during COVID-19: The application of customer open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 8(1), 43.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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