Partial Correlation Analysis of Association between Subjective Well-Being and Ecological Footprint




Zhang, Jinting
Zhan, F. Benjamin
Wu, Xiu
Zhang, Daojun

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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute


A spatial-temporal panel dataset was collected from 101 countries during 2006–2016. Using partial correlation (PC) and ordinary correlation (OR) analyses, this research examines the relationship between ecological footprint (EF) and subjective well-being (SWB) to measure environmental impacts on people’s happiness. Gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization rate (UR), literacy rate (LR), youth life expectancy (YLE), wage and salaried workers (WSW), political stability (PS), voice accountability (VA) are regarded as control variables. Total bio-capacity (TBC), ecological crop-land footprints (ECL), ecological grazing-land footprint (EGL), and ecological built-up land footprint (EBL) have significant positive influences on SWB, but ecological fish-land (EFL) has significant negative influences on SWB. Ecological carbon footprint (ECF) is significantly negatively related to SWB in developed countries. An increase in the amount of EF factors is associated with a country’s degree of development. Political social–economic impacts on SWB disguised environmental contribution on SWB, especially CBF impacts on SWB. The use of PC in examining the association between SWB and EF helps bridge a knowledge gap and facilitate a better understanding of happiness.



partial correlation, subjective well-being, ecological footprint, sustainability, Geography and Environmental Studies


Zhang, J., Zhan, F. B., Wu, X., & Zhang, D. (2021). Partial correlation analysis of association between subjective well-being and ecological footprint. Sustainability, 13(3), 1033.


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