Fly Ash-Added, Seawater-Mixed Pervious Concrete: Compressive Strength, Permeability, and Phosphorus Removal




Hwang, Sangchul
Yeon, Jung Heum

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute


A mix proportion of off-spec fly ash (FA)-added, seawater-mixed pervious concrete (SMPC) was optimized for compressive strength and permeability and then the optimized SMPC was tested for the rate and extent of aqueous phosphorus removal. An optimum mix proportion was obtained to attain the percentages (% wt.) of FA-to-binder at 15.0%, nano SiO2 (NS)-to-FA at 3.0%, liquid-to-binder at 0.338, and water reducer-to-binder at 0.18% from which a 7-day compressive strength of 14.0 MPa and a permeability of 5.5 mm/s were predicted. A long-term maximum compressive strength was measured to be ~16 MPa for both the optimized SMPC and the control ordinary pervious concrete (Control PC). The phosphorus removal was favorable for both the optimized SMPC and the Control PC based on the dimensionless Freundlich parameter (1/n). Both the optimized SMPC and Control PC had a first-order phosphorus removal constant of ~0.03 h−1. The optimized SMPC had a slightly lower capacity of phosphorus removal than the Control PC based on the Freundlich constant, Kf (mg1−1/n kg−1 L1/n): 15.72 for the optimized SMPC vs. 16.63 for Control. This study demonstrates a cleaner production and application of off-spec FA-added, seawater-mixed pervious concrete to simultaneously attain water, waste, and concrete sustainability.



mix optimization, off-spec fly ash, pervious concrete, phosphorus, seawater, sustainability, Ingram School of Engineering


Hwang, S., Yeon, J. H. (2022). Fly ash-added, seawater-mixed pervious concrete: Compressive strength, permeability, and phosphorus removal. Materials, 15(04), 1407.


Rights Holder

Rights License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Rights URI