Inclusion of National Geography Standards in Mandatory and Voluntary State Curriculum Frameworks




Bailey, Rachel M.
Dixon, Richard W.

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The Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education


Geography for Life promulgated the first set of national geography standards. This research investigates the assumption that national geography standards have the greatest potential for classroom integration in states that have a comprehensive geography component and a mandatory state curriculum framework. The study examines how well (10+ years later) those standards have been included in state curriculum frameworks. Results indicate that states are doing a poor job of including geography in middle school curricula with only seven states receiving acceptable scores on an inclusion metric. The study also identifies the specific standards that are included more or less often than others. It also suggests that states are focusing on a more regional approach to geography, focusing on one place at one time rather than taking a holistic approach to studying the distributions and processes of geography, both human and physical.



geography, standards, middle school, curriculum framework, scope and sequence


Bailey, R.M. & Dixon, R.W. (2007). Inclusion of national geography standards in mandatory and voluntary state curriculum frameworks. Research in Geographic Education, 9(2), pp. 104-123.


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