Spread of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus across Lowland Populations of Túngara Frogs in Panamá




Rodriguez-Brenes, Sofia
Rodriguez, David
Ibanez, Roberto
Ryan, Michael

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Public Library of Science


Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats (> 500 meters above sea level, m a.s.l.) of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the spread (2009 to 2014) of Bd across lowland habitats east of the Panamá Canal (< 500 m a.s.l.) with a focus on the Túngara frog (Physalaemus [Engystomops] pustulosus), one of the most common and abundant frog species in this region. Highland populations in western Panamá were already infected with Bd at the start of the study, which was consistent with previous studies indicating that Bd is enzootic in this region. In central Panamá, we collected the first positive samples in 2010, and by 2014, we detected Bd from remote sites in eastern Panamá (Darién National Park). We discuss the importance of studying Bd in lowland species, which may serve as potential reservoirs and agents of dispersal of Bd to highland species that are more susceptible to chytridiomycosis.



frogs, amphibians, fungal pathogens, species extinction, canals, Costa Rica, rivers, towns


Rodríguez-Brenes, S., Rodriguez, D., Ibáñez, R., & Ryan, M. (2016). Spread of amphibian chytrid fungus across lowland populations of Túngara frogs in Panamá. PLoS One, 11(5), e0155745.


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© 2016 Rodríguez-Brenes et al.

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