The Biology and Ecology of Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on its Host Plant, Quercus fusiformis




Lund, JoAnne N.

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Through experimental rearing, heterogony (the alternation of unisexual and bisexual generations) was demonstrated in the cynipid species Belonocnema treatae Mayr 1881. Female B. treatae (bisexual generation) induce galls on the leaves of Ouercus fusiformis Small (Fagaceae), from which unisexual females, previously described as B. kinseyi Weld 1921, emerge. Unisexual females induce galls on the roots of~ fusiformis. The name B. treatae has priority, so B. kinseyi becomes a new synonym. Adults of each generation and the galls they induce are described. Timing events in the life cycle of B. treatae on its host plant are described for populations in central Texas. Hymenopteran inquilines and parasitoids of B. treatae are identified, and aspects of the impact of natural enemies on B. treatae success are described.



gall wasps, live oak, insect-plant relationships


Lund, J. N. (1998). The biology and ecology of Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on its host plant, Quercus fusiformis (Unpublished thesis). Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.


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