Design Strategy for Recycled Aggregate Concrete: A Review of Status and Future Perspectives




Makul, Natt
Fediuk, Roman
Amran, Mugahed
Zeyad, Abdullah
Klyuev, Sergey
Chulkova, Irina
Ozbakkaloglu, Togay
Vatin, Nikolai
Karelina, Maria
Azevedo, Afonso

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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute


Currently, a number of disadvantages hampers the use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). The current review proves that concretes made with complete replacement of natural aggregate with RCA allow the production of high-quality concrete. One of the possibilities for improving concrete properties with RCA is the use of extended curing and pozzolanic materials with varying cement ratios. The potential use of RCA concretes is in the production of high-value materials that increase environmental and financial benefits. RCA have strong potential in the development of a new generation of concrete and stimulate economic activity in many countries in addition to optimizing natural resources. Economic benefits include minimal travel costs; cheaper sources of concrete than newly mined aggregates; reduction of the landfill area required for the placement of concrete waste; the use of RCA minimizes the need for gravel extraction, etc. The proposed strategy could be to sequentially separate demolition waste such as roof finishes, waterproof materials, interior and exterior materials, etc. Closing life cycles is the main approach used for efficient structures for the recycling and reuse of construction and demolition waste in the production and recovery of materials, especially when recycling and reusing materials. In the life cycle, the recycling of recovered materials allows them to be used for new construction purposes, avoiding the use of natural concrete aggregates. Government, design institutes, construction departments and project managers should be involved in the creation and use of RCA. In demolition and construction, the main players are the project owners. Their obligations, expectations and responsibilities must be properly aligned. For the past 20 years, recycled concrete aggregate from demolition and construction waste has been considered as an alternative to pure concrete in structural concrete to minimize the environmental impact of construction waste and demolition waste and the conversion of natural aggregate resources. It is now recognized that the use of RCA for the generations of concrete is a promising and very attractive technology for reducing the environmental impact of the construction sector and conserving natural resources. In the market, the selling price is not an obstacle for market applications of RCA, as there are scenarios in which their cost is lower than the cost of products made from conventional building materials. This is more of an acceptance factor in the market for recycled concrete aggregates. In this sector, the lack of identification, accreditation and uniform quality certification systems and their narrow application cause some marketing problems. With proper RCA preparation, concrete with standard physical and mechanical properties and performance characteristics can be obtained.



ecological impacts, costs, life cycle assessments, quality performance, optimum concretes, sustainable concrete selection, Ingram School of Engineering


Makul, N., Fediuk, R., Amran, M., Zeyad, A. M., Klyuev, S., Chulkova, I., Ozbakkaloglu, T., Vatin, N., Karelina, M., & Azevedo, A. (2021). Design strategy for recycled aggregate concrete: A review of status and future perspectives. Crystals, 11(6), 695.


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