A Comparative Analysis of Geographical Education in Japan and Myanmar




Win, Hla Hla

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The Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education


To assess the current status of geographical education in Myanmar’s junior high school curriculum, the geographical education of Japan was used as a comparative reference. The standards measured in the Survey on the State of Geographical Education around the World, conducted by the International Geographical Union in 1999-2000, provided the criteria for comparison. A small survey was also carried out to confirm the comparative assessments made by this researcher for both of the countries. The current geographical education of Japan was found to be more adequate for preparing active twenty-first century citizens. The current geographical education of Myanmar needs to be developed to meet international standards and the policy of the country.



international charter, geographical education, Japan, Myanmar, comparative study


Win, H. H. (2002). A comparative analysis of geographical education in Japan and Myanmar. Research in Geographic Education, 4(1), pp. 9-28.


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