Confirmatory Factor Analysis Alternative: Free, Accessible CBID (Classical Bayesian Instrument Development) Software




Bott, Marjorie J.
Karanevich, Alex G.
Garrard, Lili
Price, Larry R.
Mudaranthakam, Dinesh Pal
Gajewski, Byron J.

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Sage Publications


New software that performs Classical and Bayesian Instrument Development (CBID) is reported that seamlessly integrates expert (content validity) and participant data (construct validity) to produce entire reliability estimates with smaller sample requirements. The free CBID software can be accessed through a website and used by clinical investigators in new instrument development. Demonstrations are presented of the three approaches using the CBID software: (a) traditional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), (b) Bayesian CFA using flat uninformative prior, and (c) Bayesian CFA using content expert data (informative prior). Outcomes of usability testing demonstrate the need to make the user-friendly, free CBID software available to interdisciplinary researchers. CBID has the potential to be a new and expeditious method for instrument development, adding to our current measurement toolbox. This allows for the development of new instruments for measuring determinants of health in smaller diverse populations or populations of rare diseases.



free software, instrument development methodsBayesian methods


Bott, M., Karanevich, A. G., Garrard, L., Price, L. R., Mudaranthakam, D. P., & Gajewski, B. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis alternative: Free, accessible CBID software. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 40(2), pp. 257–269.


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