College of Education

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    Interventions for improving employment outcomes for persons with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic systematic review update
    (Wiley, 2021-07) Fong, Carlton J.; Taylor, Joshua; Berdyyeva, Aynura; McClelland, Amanda M.; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Westbrook, John D.
    Background: The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is on the rise. Currently, 1 in 59 children are identified with ASD in the United States. ASD refers to a range of neurological disorders that involve some degree of difficulty with communication and interpersonal relationships. The range of the spectrum for autism disorders is wide with those at the higher functioning end often able to lead relatively independent lives and complete academic programs even while demonstrating social awkwardness. Those at the lower functioning end of the autism spectrum often demonstrate physical limitations, may lack speech, and have the inability to relate socially with others. As persons with ASD age, options such as employment become increasingly important as a consideration for long‐term personal planning and quality of life. While many challenges exist for persons with ASD in obtaining and maintaining employment, some research shows that, with effective behavioral and social interventions, employment can occur. About 37% of individuals with ASD report having been employed for 12 months or more, 4 years after exiting high school. However, several studies show that individuals with ASD are more likely to lose their employment for behavioral and social interaction problems rather than their inability to perform assigned work tasks. Although Westbrook et al. (2012a, 2013, 2015) have reviewed the literature on interventions targeting employment for individuals with ASD, this review is outdated and does not account for recent developments in the field. Objectives: The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of employment interventions in securing and maintaining employment for adults and transition‐age youth with ASD, updating two reviews by Westbrook et al. (2012a, 2013). Search Methods: The comprehensive search strategy used to identify relevant studies included a review of 28 relevant electronic databases. Search terminology for each of the electronic databases was developed from available database thesauri. Appropriate synonyms were used to maximize the database search output. Several international databases were included among the 28 databases searched. In addition, the authors identified and reviewed gray literature through analysis of reference lists of relevant studies. Unpublished dissertations and theses were also identified through database searches. The programs of conferences held by associations and organizations relevant to ASD and employment were also searched. In sum, the search strategy replicated and expanded the prior search methods used by Westbrook et al. (2012a, 2013). Selection Criteria: Selection criteria consisted of an intervention evaluation using a randomized controlled trial or quasi-experimental design, an employment outcome, and a population of individuals with ASD. Data Collection and Analysis: We updated the search from Westbrook et al., replicating and broadening the information retrieval processes. Our wide array of sources included electronic databases, gray literature, and conference and organization websites. Once all potentially relevant studies were located, pairs of coders evaluated the relevance of each title and abstract. Among the studies deemed potentially relevant, 278 were subjected to full-text retrieval and screening by pairs of coders. Because many intervention studies did not include employment outcomes, only three studies met our inclusion criteria. Given the small number of included studies, meta-analytic procedures were not used; rather, we opted to use more narrative and descriptive analysis to summarize the available evidence, including an assessment of risk of bias. Results: The systematic review update identified three studies that evaluated employment outcomes for interventions for individuals with ASD. All three studies identified in the review suggest that vocation-focused programs may have positive impacts on the employment outcomes for individuals with ASD. Wehman et al. indicated that participants in Project SEARCH had higher employment rates than control participants at both 9-month and 1-year follow-up time points. Adding autism spectrum disorder supports, Project SEARCH in Wehman et al.'s study also demonstrated higher employment rates for treatment participants than control participants at postgraduation, 3-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Smith et al. found that virtual reality job interview training was able to increase the number of job offers treatment participants received compared to control participants. Authors' Conclusions: Given that prior reviews did not identify interventions with actual employment outcomes, the more recent emergence of evaluations of such programs is encouraging. This suggests that there is a growing body of evidence regarding interventions to enhance the employment outcomes for individuals with ASD but also greater need to conduct rigorous trials of vocation-based interventions for individuals with ASD that measure employment outcomes.
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    Expectancy-Value Profiles in Math and Science: A Person-Centered Approach to Cross-Domain Motivation with Academic and STEM-Related Outcomes
    (Elsevier, 2021-04) Fong, Carlton J.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Hill-Troglin Cox, Christie; Lawson, Christie A.
    The need to enhance the STEM workforce and, in turn, the STEM educational pipeline is a prevailing issue in the U.S. One critical component in this pipeline is students’ interest in STEM majors and their persistence in such majors, theorized to be a function of both students’ perceived value and expectancy beliefs in the subject matter. Using an expectancy-value lens, we examined cross-domain patterns of high school students’ expectancy beliefs and values in both mathematics and science using a person-centered or profile approach. With data from the High School Longitudinal Study, latent profile analysis revealed five profiles characterized as Low Math/Low Science (i.e., endorsing low levels of expectancy and value beliefs in math and science), Moderate Math/Moderate Science, High Math/High Science, Low Math/High Science, and High Math/Low Science. Taking into account aspects of students’ background and school context, we found that motivational profile membership predicted math and science high school achievement, college persistence, and both STEM major intentions and decisions. Moreover, there were a number of gender and racial/ethnic differences and contextual variation in profile memberships as well. Implications for theory and educational practice are discussed in relation to study findings.
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    LASSI's Great Adventure: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and Academic Outcomes
    (Elsevier, 2021-09) Fong, Carlton J.; Krou, Megan R.; Johnston-Ashton, Karen; Hoff, Meagan A.; Lin, Shengjie; Gonzales, Cassandra
    There have been considerable efforts to describe, examine, and foster the strategies students use while learning. Defined as thoughts, behaviors, beliefs, or emotions that facilitate knowledge acquisition, learning strategies play an essential role in students’ achievement. This study reports on a random-effects meta-analysis of 158 studies (2,897 effect sizes; N = 71,852 students) on relationships between learning and study strategies, as measured by ten subscales of an established and prevalent instrument, the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI; Weinstein et al., 1987, 2004, 2016), and academic outcomes measured as GPA/grades, test scores, and persistence. Results indicated that motivation strategies had the highest positive correlations with GPA and persistence outcomes. For test scores, test taking strategies, anxiety, and selecting main ideas were the strongest positive correlates. Associations between LASSI subscales and outcomes were moderated by age, indicating lower correlations among students in postsecondary contexts compared to K-12 settings. Implications for research and practice regarding the role of strategic learning are discussed.
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    Academic Help-Seeking and Achievement of Postsecondary Students: A Meta-Analytic Investigation
    (American Psychological Association, 2023-11) Fong, Carlton J.; Gonzales, Cassandra; Hill-Troglin Cox, Christie
    Nearly all college students require some academic assistance throughout their learning experiences. Rather than a dependent act, help-seeking is a self-regulated and motivated strategy; however, there are mixed findings regarding the relationship between academic help-seeking and academic achievement. Thus, the current study used meta-analytic techniques to assess the relationship between academic help-seeking variables and achievement (GPA, grades, test scores) among postsecondary students in 108 studies (119 samples, N = 37,941). Findings revealed a positive association between self-reported, need-contingent help-seeking behaviors and student achievement; the average weighted correlation was very small but potentially meaningful in the long run. Furthermore, the quality of help-seeking mattered, revealing small to moderate associations of greater consequence. Specifically, and executive help-seeking were negatively correlated to achievement; instrumental help-seeking along with formal help-seeking was positively correlated with academic performance. Moreover, a few factors significantly moderated the relationship between help-seeking and achievement. Implications for research and practice will be discussed.
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    "Feedback to the Future": Advancing Motivation and Emotional Perspectives in Feedback Research
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023-01) Fong, Carlton J.; Schallert, Diane L.
    When a learner receives feedback, important motivational and emotional processes are triggered that control whether and how the learner re-engages in a learning activity and successfully adjusts in response to what the feedback suggests. We aim to highlight how motivation and emotion processes influence feedback effectiveness, and how our theoretical understanding of the feedback process depends on appreciating the affective precursors, concomitants, and consequences of feedback. To query the literature, interrogate theories of academic motivation and emotion, and identify central motivational and emotional factors associated with feedback, we use a five-question framework: What does the feedback mean to me? How do I feel about the feedback? Can I improve from the feedback? Do I want to improve from the feedback? Am I supported by others or by the context in dealing with feedback? A conceptual review of empirically grounded and theory-driven interpretations accompanies each question to inform practice and research.
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    A Multidimensional Examination of Children's Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes
    (Wiley, 2023-11-08) Miller, Cindy Faith; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Woods, Bobbi
    The present research applied a multidimensional framework to the study of gender stereotypes by investigating whether elementary school children display different levels of endorsement when considering distinct gender stereotype constructs (ability, category, and interest) and feminine versus masculine stereotypes. Study 1 (N = 403) compared children's ability and category beliefs using a set of gender-neutral skill items. Study 2 (N = 539) extended this research by examining whether children showed different patterns of ability and category decisions for feminine versus masculine occupational items. Study 3 (N = 974) furthered our understanding of the construct dimension by comparing children's interest and ability decisions within the STEM domain. Findings revealed that older elementary school children endorsed ability stereotypes more strongly than category stereotypes and, across all age groups, children endorsed interest stereotypes more strongly than ability stereotypes. Findings also revealed age differences in how children think about masculine versus feminine stereotypes. For masculine stereotypes, younger children showed stronger endorsement than older children; however, for feminine stereotypes, the reverse pattern was found such that older children showed more stereotyped thinking than younger children. The present study illustrates the benefits of employing a multidimensional framework to gain a more nuanced understanding of how children apply their increasing knowledge of gender stereotypes.
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    What Does ESL Mean to Her? An Analysis of Women of Color Recounting Their Attempts to Exit EL Instructional Services
    (Sage, 2023-01) Brooks, Maneka Deanna
    A portion of EL-identified youth want to exit the EL instructional services to which they are legally entitled. Moreover, institutionalized adultism within EL policy does not provide youths a role in decision-making about these services. As a result, little is known about how individuals who attempt unsanctioned exits conceptualize EL instructional services. This study uses an intersectional anti-adultism conceptual lens to analyze the retrospective interviews of 35 women of color who attempted to exit EL instructional services during their K–12 schooling. The findings highlight three dominant themes in participants’ conceptualizations of EL instructional services: they were academically limiting, socially isolating, and that placement in these services was a product of racism. Moreover, this detailed analysis evidenced how schooling transitions impacted participants’ conceptualization of EL instructional services. These findings have implications for how research, policy, and practice can center EL-identified youths’ decision-making and disrupt their experiences of marginalization.
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    Anti-Asian Racism in Education from the Lens of AsianCrit: Tenets and Practices
    (2023-05) Shang, Lihua; Bohonos, Jeremy W.
    The purpose of this Research Roundtable is to analyze racism in Education from the lens of AsianCrit and to discuss teaching practices in various Adult Education sections.
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    Do They Even Need " Adult" Education? A Programming Critique of Day Habilitation
    (Sage, 2023-05) Gerken, Lauren; Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    Day habilitation provides informal and non-formal adult education programming for individuals with disabilities, who often go unrecognized by the adult education field because of infantilization that precludes them from common perceptions of "adults," contribution to a dearth of information about day hab access and programming in adult education literature. In this paper, we critically examine day hab access and programing issues in Texas, discussing barriers regarding costs and stigmas toward attendees from adult educators' perspectives. We include practical recommendations for the field, such as embracing person-centered approaches and entering discussions about day habilitation programming to improve outcomes for participants.
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    Research Seminar in Education: Affect of Classroom Pets on Students' Behavior
    (2023-05) Melton, Stephanie; Flores, Annissa; Wilson, Alyssa; Mumu, Maisha Farzana
    Teachers have a lot that they are responsible for one of the biggest being students’ behavior. While this task may be on the top of the priority list for most teachers it does not come without its challenges. One of which is finding out which strategy works best. This current research study examines the attitudes of secondary students towards animals in the classroom. Students without class pets will be asked if they could anticipate how a class pet might affect them. Students with a class pet will be asked how the class pet affects them. Our research study plans to add to the current research by examining if classroom pets affect teachers’ efficacy in middle and high school. At the moment most of the research done on classroom pets is focused on Special Education classes instead of general education, therefore it’s hard to make a research-based decision on if a class pet is right for you. Additionally, most research is based on younger classrooms leaving the older grade levels in the dark. This research is here to help change that and provide researched based information gathered from our local area. This research hopes to add to the discussion about the efficacy of class pets in teachers’ instruction. Our research team aims to understand how teachers’ perceive classroom pets, their relatedness to student success and classroom environment, and their willingness or unwillingness to include a class pet in their own classroom. For this study, we will look at the affects classroom pets have on student behavior in different grade levels. Students go from a classroom that does not have a class pet to one that does have a classroom pet.
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    Older Adults' Development, Learning and Education
    (Elsevier, 2023-02) Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    The world’s population is aging. Globally, there are “727 million persons aged 65 years or over in 2020” (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2020, p. 1). In 2020, 9.3% of the population was over age 65 (p. 1). By 2050, the “number of older persons worldwide is projected to be more than double, reaching over 1.5 billion” (p. 1). Because the older adult population is increasing, and learning is a lifelong endeavor, it is important to understand older learners and their learning. In this chapter, I discuss the definitions of “older adult.” I touch on physical changes, namely differences in sight and hearing because these changes can profoundly affect learning. Additionally, I explore brain changes and the effects of exercise and cognitive training on the brain. Next, I investigate older adults’ informal learning in daily activities and nonformal settings. Last, I conclude with observations about the literature on older adults in these areas. The minimum age used to define an older adult varies. The age of 65 is typically chosen as a minimum age for later adulthood because “In 1889, the German Chancellor Otto von Bismark decided to set this as the age when people could receive social insurance payments” (Whitbourne and Whitbourne, 2014, p. 8). Gerontologists divide older adults into three groups. Individuals ages 65–74 are “young-old,” while those 75–84 are “middle-old” with age 85 and older considered “old-old” (p. 8). Some scholars use ages 50 or 60 as minimum ages to define “older adults.” Most of the information presented in this chapter will concern adults aged 50 or older.
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    The Research on Islamic-Based Educational Leadership since 1990: An International Review of Empirical Evidence and a Future Research Agenda
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022-01-01) Arar, Khalid; Sawalhi, Rania; Yilmaz, Munube
    The aim of the present article was to systematically review international evidence about Islamic-based (a new term we suggest) educational leadership models published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2021. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by following the steps identified by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). These steps were data source identification, search, data collection, eligibility criteria selection, data selection, and data analysis. They were aimed at enabling us to answer the following research inquiries: (1) What are the existing developments in research on Islamic-based educational leadership and policy? and (2) What are the main themes presented in these studies? Here, the results are presented first in a macro-outlook elucidating the main trends of this research (topical areas, geographical areas, approaches, and methods). The main themes that emerge from the analysis are: (a) policy, reforms, and stakeholders; second, educational leadership models and styles; and third, gender, feminism, and social justice. We share theoretical and methodological conclusions and outlines of some possible future research directions to contribute to inter-faith, equity, and diversity.
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    Effects of Exercise Intensity on Pedal Force Asymmetry during Cycling
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-08-08) Farrell, John; Pribble, Brian; Larson, Rebecca
    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of exercise intensity and a participant’s cycling experience on asymmetry in pedal forces during cycling. Participants were classified as cycling experienced (CE) or non-cycling experienced (NCE) based on self-reported training history. Participants completed an incremental cycling test via a cycle ergometer with inspired and expired gases, capillary blood lactate and pedaling forces collected throughout the test. Group X exercise intensity comparisons were analyzed at workloads corresponding to 2 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L for the blood lactate accumulation and peak power output, respectively. No Group X exercise intensity interactions for any variables (p > 0.05) were observed. The main effect on the exercise intensity was observed for absolute (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.836) and relative (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.752) power outputs and pedal force effectiveness (PFE) (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.728). The main effect for the group was observed for absolute (p = 0.007, η2 = 0.326) and relative (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.433) power outputs, the absolute difference between the lower limbs in power production (p = 0.047, η2 = 0.191), the peak crank torque asymmetry index (p = 0.031, η2 = 0.222) and the PFE (p = 0.014, η2 = 0.280). The exercise intensity was observed to have no impact on asymmetry in pedaling forces during cycling.
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    Fostering Transformative Learning
    (Texas State University Education Institute, 2022-08-18) Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    Transformation is a much-used word in today’s world. Colleges, universities, social service organizations, private businesses, and other agencies proclaim that they transform individuals’ lives. Mezirow (2003) notes that transformative learning changes our assumptions and expectations to be “more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change” (p. 58). Transformative learning suggests life-altering changes in thinking. Examples may include Ku Klux Klan members renouncing their membership in the Klan and converting to Judaism or individuals recognizing that helping others is more important than acquiring material possessions. Transformative learning means seismic shifts in worldview (Hoggan, 2016; Mezirow, 2000). Certainly, as educators, we hope to foster transformative learning to expand students’ worldviews. In this article, I briefly describe Mezirow’s (2000) popular view of transformative learning as well as other lenses through which transformative learning has been considered. Next, I discuss the general outcomes of the transformative learning experience. I delineate Taylor’s (2009) core elements necessary to foster transformative learning and provide a few examples.
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    Mental Health in the COVID-19 Era
    (Texas State University Education Institute, 2021-12-06) Haiyasoso, Maria
    In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel SARS CoV2 (COVID-19) a global pandemic. People abruptly adjusted their daily living, work life, and social engagement in response to ongoing and evolving information about the unprecedented threat of COVID-19. Part of these adjustments included working from home, physically distancing when around others, and in some cases, complete quarantine. As a result of the shift to new ways of functioning, people commonly experienced mental and emotional burdens, and the negative consequences persist nearly two years later. These consequences include physical and emotional isolation, grief and loss, and mental health concerns. Yet, amidst the challenges, people have also demonstrated resilience and found creative solutions to work and social life. This paper serves as an overview of adverse impacts of the pandemic and suggested strategies for coping.
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    Adult Education-Related Graduate Degrees: Insights on the Challenges and Benefits of Online Programming
    (New Prairie Press, 2017-06) Stephens, Mattyna L.; Coryell, Joellen E.; Pena, Cindy
    This study investigated the experiences of program coordinators’/instructors’ experiences of teaching online in graduate adult education programs. Specifically, we examined their perspectives on the benefits and challenges to both students and instructors in online learning environments and participants’ recommendations for others who were interested in transitioning their courses and degrees to online programming.
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    Operationalizing and Researching Cosmopolitan Adult Education: Collaborative Inquiry Frameworks for Adult Educators’ International Cross-Cultural Study of Learning and Knowing
    (New Prairie Press, 2018-06) Coryell, Joellen E.
    A discussion on cosmopolitan adult development and research in progress on the use of comparative, collaborative inquiry as a method to enhance adult educators’ cosmopolitan worldviews.
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    Overview of SoTL in Biomechanics
    (2022-07) Knudson, Duane V.
    No abstract prepared.
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    Unvoicing a field's expertise: A two-pronged citation and language analysis
    (University of Borås, 2022-07) Suh, Emily; Wu, Na; Garcia, Agustin; Oelschlegel, Candice P.; Armstrong, Sonya
    The field of Developmental Education (DE) draws from a distinct and multidisciplinary body of research and scholarship to facilitate students' transitions to college and to support their postsecondary academic success. However, highly cited scholars and policymakers external to the field perpetuate negative perceptions of DE, arguing for reform or elimination without inclusion of field experts. Through a combination of Citation Content Analysis and Transitivity Analysis, this study examined citation trends and verb transitivity to uncover the voices privileged as experts within an influential publication by the Community College Research Center and aimed to uncover how the authors (re)presented the DE field, literature, scholarship, its members, and its students. Findings revealed a single citation of an in-field DE scholar and repeated erasure of developmental educators and DE scholarship through passivation of DE professionals as social actors. Implications are discussed for the importance of including inside-field experts’ voices in discussions about their field as a necessary component of developing a critical praxis of integrating scholarship and practice in support of students.
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    Me siento como un héroe: Fostering Global Citizenry through an Integrated Unit of Study on Water
    (Texas Council of Teachers of English Language Arts, 2013-12) Lopez, Minda M.; Kramer, Kristina
    In this article, we uphold diversity and 21st century skills as central to literacy pedagogy and use a cosmopolitan lens to present the integrated curriculum of a fourth grade bilingual teacher and the experiences of her students. We describe a unit built around language arts, science, and social studies with a focus on social justice and global connectedness for Latina/o students, many of whom were immigrants and transnationals themselves. We also analyze student responses to the unit in relation to cosmopolitanism and global citizenship. Students made connections to their own transnational experiences and were empowered to seek additional ways to engage in social justice.