College of Education

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    Anti-Asian Racism in Education from the Lens of AsianCrit: Tenets and Practices
    (2023-05) Shang, Lihua; Bohonos, Jeremy W.
    The purpose of this Research Roundtable is to analyze racism in Education from the lens of AsianCrit and to discuss teaching practices in various Adult Education sections.
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    Do They Even Need " Adult" Education? A Programming Critique of Day Habilitation
    (Sage, 2023-05) Gerken, Lauren; Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    Day habilitation provides informal and non-formal adult education programming for individuals with disabilities, who often go unrecognized by the adult education field because of infantilization that precludes them from common perceptions of "adults," contribution to a dearth of information about day hab access and programming in adult education literature. In this paper, we critically examine day hab access and programing issues in Texas, discussing barriers regarding costs and stigmas toward attendees from adult educators' perspectives. We include practical recommendations for the field, such as embracing person-centered approaches and entering discussions about day habilitation programming to improve outcomes for participants.
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    Research Seminar in Education: Affect of Classroom Pets on Students' Behavior
    (2023-05) Melton, Stephanie; Flores, Annissa; Wilson, Alyssa; Mumu, Maisha Farzana
    Teachers have a lot that they are responsible for one of the biggest being students’ behavior. While this task may be on the top of the priority list for most teachers it does not come without its challenges. One of which is finding out which strategy works best. This current research study examines the attitudes of secondary students towards animals in the classroom. Students without class pets will be asked if they could anticipate how a class pet might affect them. Students with a class pet will be asked how the class pet affects them. Our research study plans to add to the current research by examining if classroom pets affect teachers’ efficacy in middle and high school. At the moment most of the research done on classroom pets is focused on Special Education classes instead of general education, therefore it’s hard to make a research-based decision on if a class pet is right for you. Additionally, most research is based on younger classrooms leaving the older grade levels in the dark. This research is here to help change that and provide researched based information gathered from our local area. This research hopes to add to the discussion about the efficacy of class pets in teachers’ instruction. Our research team aims to understand how teachers’ perceive classroom pets, their relatedness to student success and classroom environment, and their willingness or unwillingness to include a class pet in their own classroom. For this study, we will look at the affects classroom pets have on student behavior in different grade levels. Students go from a classroom that does not have a class pet to one that does have a classroom pet.
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    Older Adults' Development, Learning and Education
    (Elsevier, 2023-02) Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    The world’s population is aging. Globally, there are “727 million persons aged 65 years or over in 2020” (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2020, p. 1). In 2020, 9.3% of the population was over age 65 (p. 1). By 2050, the “number of older persons worldwide is projected to be more than double, reaching over 1.5 billion” (p. 1). Because the older adult population is increasing, and learning is a lifelong endeavor, it is important to understand older learners and their learning. In this chapter, I discuss the definitions of “older adult.” I touch on physical changes, namely differences in sight and hearing because these changes can profoundly affect learning. Additionally, I explore brain changes and the effects of exercise and cognitive training on the brain. Next, I investigate older adults’ informal learning in daily activities and nonformal settings. Last, I conclude with observations about the literature on older adults in these areas. The minimum age used to define an older adult varies. The age of 65 is typically chosen as a minimum age for later adulthood because “In 1889, the German Chancellor Otto von Bismark decided to set this as the age when people could receive social insurance payments” (Whitbourne and Whitbourne, 2014, p. 8). Gerontologists divide older adults into three groups. Individuals ages 65–74 are “young-old,” while those 75–84 are “middle-old” with age 85 and older considered “old-old” (p. 8). Some scholars use ages 50 or 60 as minimum ages to define “older adults.” Most of the information presented in this chapter will concern adults aged 50 or older.
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    The Research on Islamic-Based Educational Leadership since 1990: An International Review of Empirical Evidence and a Future Research Agenda
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022-01-01) Arar, Khalid; Sawalhi, Rania; Yilmaz, Munube
    The aim of the present article was to systematically review international evidence about Islamic-based (a new term we suggest) educational leadership models published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2021. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by following the steps identified by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). These steps were data source identification, search, data collection, eligibility criteria selection, data selection, and data analysis. They were aimed at enabling us to answer the following research inquiries: (1) What are the existing developments in research on Islamic-based educational leadership and policy? and (2) What are the main themes presented in these studies? Here, the results are presented first in a macro-outlook elucidating the main trends of this research (topical areas, geographical areas, approaches, and methods). The main themes that emerge from the analysis are: (a) policy, reforms, and stakeholders; second, educational leadership models and styles; and third, gender, feminism, and social justice. We share theoretical and methodological conclusions and outlines of some possible future research directions to contribute to inter-faith, equity, and diversity.
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    Effects of Exercise Intensity on Pedal Force Asymmetry during Cycling
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-08-08) Farrell, John; Pribble, Brian; Larson, Rebecca
    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of exercise intensity and a participant’s cycling experience on asymmetry in pedal forces during cycling. Participants were classified as cycling experienced (CE) or non-cycling experienced (NCE) based on self-reported training history. Participants completed an incremental cycling test via a cycle ergometer with inspired and expired gases, capillary blood lactate and pedaling forces collected throughout the test. Group X exercise intensity comparisons were analyzed at workloads corresponding to 2 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L for the blood lactate accumulation and peak power output, respectively. No Group X exercise intensity interactions for any variables (p > 0.05) were observed. The main effect on the exercise intensity was observed for absolute (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.836) and relative (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.752) power outputs and pedal force effectiveness (PFE) (p = 0.000, η2 = 0.728). The main effect for the group was observed for absolute (p = 0.007, η2 = 0.326) and relative (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.433) power outputs, the absolute difference between the lower limbs in power production (p = 0.047, η2 = 0.191), the peak crank torque asymmetry index (p = 0.031, η2 = 0.222) and the PFE (p = 0.014, η2 = 0.280). The exercise intensity was observed to have no impact on asymmetry in pedaling forces during cycling.
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    Fostering Transformative Learning
    (Texas State University Education Institute, 2022-08-18) Baumgartner, Lisa M.
    Transformation is a much-used word in today’s world. Colleges, universities, social service organizations, private businesses, and other agencies proclaim that they transform individuals’ lives. Mezirow (2003) notes that transformative learning changes our assumptions and expectations to be “more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change” (p. 58). Transformative learning suggests life-altering changes in thinking. Examples may include Ku Klux Klan members renouncing their membership in the Klan and converting to Judaism or individuals recognizing that helping others is more important than acquiring material possessions. Transformative learning means seismic shifts in worldview (Hoggan, 2016; Mezirow, 2000). Certainly, as educators, we hope to foster transformative learning to expand students’ worldviews. In this article, I briefly describe Mezirow’s (2000) popular view of transformative learning as well as other lenses through which transformative learning has been considered. Next, I discuss the general outcomes of the transformative learning experience. I delineate Taylor’s (2009) core elements necessary to foster transformative learning and provide a few examples.
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    Mental Health in the COVID-19 Era
    (Texas State University Education Institute, 2021-12-06) Haiyasoso, Maria
    In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel SARS CoV2 (COVID-19) a global pandemic. People abruptly adjusted their daily living, work life, and social engagement in response to ongoing and evolving information about the unprecedented threat of COVID-19. Part of these adjustments included working from home, physically distancing when around others, and in some cases, complete quarantine. As a result of the shift to new ways of functioning, people commonly experienced mental and emotional burdens, and the negative consequences persist nearly two years later. These consequences include physical and emotional isolation, grief and loss, and mental health concerns. Yet, amidst the challenges, people have also demonstrated resilience and found creative solutions to work and social life. This paper serves as an overview of adverse impacts of the pandemic and suggested strategies for coping.
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    Adult Education-Related Graduate Degrees: Insights on the Challenges and Benefits of Online Programming
    (New Prairie Press, 2017-06) Stephens, Mattyna L.; Coryell, Joellen E.; Pena, Cindy
    This study investigated the experiences of program coordinators’/instructors’ experiences of teaching online in graduate adult education programs. Specifically, we examined their perspectives on the benefits and challenges to both students and instructors in online learning environments and participants’ recommendations for others who were interested in transitioning their courses and degrees to online programming.
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    Operationalizing and Researching Cosmopolitan Adult Education: Collaborative Inquiry Frameworks for Adult Educators’ International Cross-Cultural Study of Learning and Knowing
    (New Prairie Press, 2018-06) Coryell, Joellen E.
    A discussion on cosmopolitan adult development and research in progress on the use of comparative, collaborative inquiry as a method to enhance adult educators’ cosmopolitan worldviews.
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    Overview of SoTL in Biomechanics
    (2022-07) Knudson, Duane V.
    No abstract prepared.
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    Unvoicing a field's expertise: A two-pronged citation and language analysis
    (University of Borås, 2022-07) Suh, Emily; Wu, Na; Garcia, Agustin; Oelschlegel, Candice P.; Armstrong, Sonya
    The field of Developmental Education (DE) draws from a distinct and multidisciplinary body of research and scholarship to facilitate students' transitions to college and to support their postsecondary academic success. However, highly cited scholars and policymakers external to the field perpetuate negative perceptions of DE, arguing for reform or elimination without inclusion of field experts. Through a combination of Citation Content Analysis and Transitivity Analysis, this study examined citation trends and verb transitivity to uncover the voices privileged as experts within an influential publication by the Community College Research Center and aimed to uncover how the authors (re)presented the DE field, literature, scholarship, its members, and its students. Findings revealed a single citation of an in-field DE scholar and repeated erasure of developmental educators and DE scholarship through passivation of DE professionals as social actors. Implications are discussed for the importance of including inside-field experts’ voices in discussions about their field as a necessary component of developing a critical praxis of integrating scholarship and practice in support of students.
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    Me siento como un héroe: Fostering Global Citizenry through an Integrated Unit of Study on Water
    (Texas Council of Teachers of English Language Arts, 2013-12) Lopez, Minda M.; Kramer, Kristina
    In this article, we uphold diversity and 21st century skills as central to literacy pedagogy and use a cosmopolitan lens to present the integrated curriculum of a fourth grade bilingual teacher and the experiences of her students. We describe a unit built around language arts, science, and social studies with a focus on social justice and global connectedness for Latina/o students, many of whom were immigrants and transnationals themselves. We also analyze student responses to the unit in relation to cosmopolitanism and global citizenship. Students made connections to their own transnational experiences and were empowered to seek additional ways to engage in social justice.
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    Biomechanics students’ academic performance before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (2022-04) Hsieh, Cheng Tu; Knudson, Duane V.
    This study examines students’ academic performance before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and associations with performance in introductory biomechanics. Two intact undergraduate biomechanics classes were retrospectively examined: One with in-person instruction (IPI) two semesters before the outbreak of the pandemic and one with online instruction (OI) two semesters after the outbreak of the pandemic. Class performance measures were not significantly different between instruction formats. The students’ GPA was significantly higher after all institutions abruptly transferred from face-to-face to online instruction. GPA for three semesters during the pandemic had no association with the biomechanics class performance (r = 0.29, p = 0.19). Therefore, GPA during the pandemic years should be used with caution or in combination with other assessments.
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    Citations in Google Scholar Profiles by Kinesiology Subdiscipline
    (2022-06) Knudson, Duane V.
    Keywords are important bibliometric tools for classifying, accessing, and summarizing research. Communication in and external recognition of kinesiology research may be limited by inconsistent use of terms. Citations to the top twenty Google Scholar (GS) Citations Profiles were retrieved for 20 kinesiology-related subject keywords used as GS “labels”. Total citations to top scholars were largest for the disciplinary labels “physical activity,” “exercise,” “physical education,” “sport science,” “sports,” “exercise science,” “sport,” and “kinesiology.” Citations to top scholars using professional labels were in “sports medicine” and “coaching.” The results confirm previously reported trends of slow growth of use of the term kinesiology primarily in the United States even though the highest citations were to the “physical activity” focus of the field. Strong citation counts to the “exercise,” “physical education,” and “sport science” GS labels likely result from the diversity of research interests in the field throughout the world. Kinesiology-associated scholars are influential leaders contributing to a majority of highly cited research using kinesiology subdisciplinary keywords as labels in GS Profiles. The study confirmed previous research of inconsistent use of the terms “sport” and “sports.” Inconsistent use of terms and keywords are a barrier to recognition of and the search for kinesiology-related research.
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    Citations to Biomechanics Articles from Four Databases
    (2022-04) Knudson, Duane V.
    Four (Dimensions, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science) multi-disciplinary databases were searched for journal articles published by one scholar to document the coverage of exercise and sports biomechanics. Cleaned searches returned 65 to 93 articles in common between these databases from 116 journals articles published between 1989 and 2019. Citations and mean citation rates were qualitatively higher for Google Scholar (3206 & 3.2) than the other three databases (1100-1400 & 1.6-2.1). Strong positive correlations (0.88-0.96) of citations between databases indicated that for this case, study citations from subscription databases (Scopus & Web of Science) could be predicted (SEE 3 to 7) from the free databases (Dimensions and Google Scholar). This case study indicated incomplete coverage and subtle inconsistences are likely between these databases in exercise and sport biomechanics. Skillful searching of multiple databases is recommended.
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    Don’t Judge a Boy by His Face: Creating Space for Empathy, Engagement, and Skill Building through Interactive Read Alouds
    (Texas Council of Teachers of English Language Arts, 2019) Lopez, Minda M.; Friedman, Hannah T.
    In the past few decades, research has shown interactive read alouds to have enormous benefits for developing readers and should be included as an important component of reading instruction. Yet many teachers do not utilize interactive read alouds in their literacy instruction. This is due in part to various curricular constraints and the pressures of high stakes tests. In this case study of an urban, Title I second grade class of Black and Latina/o students, we found a teacher led interactive read aloud of the book Wonder fostered a sense of community and empathy, increased engagement and motivation to read, and also helped students develop deeper comprehension skills. The inclusion of all students in the read aloud ritual helped to develop a strong community of readers and identities in the students as competent literate beings, regardless of their reading levels.
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    “We teach reading this way because it is the model we’ve adopted”: Asymmetries in language and literacy policies in a Two-Way Immersion programme
    (Taylor & Francis, 2009-06) Lopez, Minda M.; Franquiz, Maria E.
    In the USA there has been widespread growth in Two‐Way Immersion (TWI) programmes in all states, including those who have outlawed bilingual education. The model offers language majority students the opportunity to become bilingual alongside their language minority peers. Research has shown TWI programmes to be the most equitable and effective for teaching both native English speakers and linguistically subjugated populations. A central goal is that all students become proficient in oral and written communication of two languages. In this mixed methods study of a TWI programme in Texas, official discourse and policies reflected social justice and equitable language and literacy goals for students. However, there was marked incongruence between the interpretation and enactment of policies. There were asymmetrical language and literacy outcomes as the strict observance of programmatic goals constrained the English language and literacy development of Spanish‐dominant students but did not constrain the Spanish language and literacy development of English‐dominant peers. As a result, Spanish‐dominant students and their families became disillusioned and questioned their participation in the TWI programme. Findings suggest that educators must examine literacy ideologies in policies and practice and be reflexive in regards to the local implementation of policy, particularly in meeting the language and literacy needs of students from linguistically subjugated communities.
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    Mothers Choose: Reasons for Enrolling Their Children in a Two-Way Immersion Program
    (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09) Lopez, Minda M.
    This article reports a qualitative study of the reasons mothers chose a Spanish/English Two-Way Immersion Program for their children in Central Texas. Some of the mothers’ reasons varied and others overlap. All mothers expressed the belief that the program would provide their children with more opportunities, cognitive benefits, and an increased ability to communicate, confirming earlier studies. The qualitative nature of this study allows for a more in-depth and nuanced look at the reasons why parents from varying backgrounds chose to enroll their children in a Spanish/English TWI program.
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    Preparticipation screening: The sports physical therapy perspective
    (North American Sports Medicine Institute, 2013-04) Sanders, Barbara; Blackburn, Turner; Boucher, Brenda
    Background and purpose: The sports physical therapist (SPT) is uniquely qualified to participate in the provision of preparticipation physical examinations (PPE). The PPE is recommended prior to athletic participation and required by many jurisdictions. There is little research to support the process and components; however, a number of professional organizations have recommendations that direct the PPE process. Description of topic and related evidence: This clinical commentary highlights the role of the sports physical therapist and current evidence related to the preparticipation physical examination process. Data sources were limited to include professional positions and peer reviewed publications from 1988 through January 2013. Relation to clinical practice: Preparticipation physicals should be useful, comprehensive, and cost effective for the athlete and the health care team. Additional research is indicated in many of the areas of the PPE. The SPT is a valuable member of the health care team and can be a primary facilitator of the PPE in concert with the physician, athletic trainer, athletic organization administrators, and others. Well-designed and inclusive PPEs can be provided to meet the major objectives of identification of athletes at risk. Controversy continues over the extent of the cardiac screening component as well as other sport or athlete specific components.