Spirituality, Friendship, and ADHD: Implications for Inclusion in Recreation




Rivers, Audrey
Litchke, Lyn G.

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Sopher Press


This phenomenological study explored the experiences of seven youth (5 males [3 with AD HD], 2 females; ages 8 - 11) who engaged in a 9 - week spirituality infused inclusive Christian recreation program called the Messengers . The Messengers occurred one day a week, after school, for 1 ½ hours lead by Therapeutic Recreation (TR) college students. The analysis from the transcribed video recorded focus group interview s (pre and post) revealed the nature of positive thoughts, words, and actions of the youths’ lived experience during Messengers with regard to a loving and caring God, faith in self and others, and realistic friends hip s . Based on the results, the Messengers program inspired the youth in a positive manner to act and speak in a caring and loving manner towards themselves, others, and God. The participants with ADHD were able to get through their issues of social struggles as evidence d by them caring more about their peers and making new friends by the end of the program. The results of this study provide a useful contribution to the healthcare and education professionals by studying the spiritual dimension through the lens of Christian faith.



friendship, therapeutic recreation, inclusion, disability, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, spirituality, ADHD, Health and Human Performance


Rivers, A., & Litchke, L. (2017). Spirituality, friendship, and ADHD: Implications for inclusion in recreation. Journal of Childhood and Religion, 7.


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