Developmental Mathematics: Students’ Predicted Outcome Value of Electronic Communication




Nabors, Amy G.
Zientek, Linda R.

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Texas State University, The Education Institute


This study investigated the predicted outcome value of electronic communication from the viewpoint of developmental mathematics students. Students at a large Texas community college completed a combination of instruments that were administered in three prior studies. Three reasons for using electronic communication that were included in this study were procedural/clarification, personal/social, and efficiency. Results indicated that (a) student-initiated electronic communications conversations were correlated with students’ predicted outcome value of electronic communications; (b) instructor immediacy behaviors via electronic measures was correlated with students’ reasons for electronic communication; (c) instructor immediacy of electronic communication and the reasons for communicating explained 34.3% of the variance in students’ predicted outcome value of electronic communication; (d) procedural/clarification reasons was the largest predictor of predicted outcome value; and (e) the β weight and structure coefficient suggested that personal/social reasons was a possible suppressor.



developmental mathematics, electronic communication, predicted outcome value, regression, suppressor variable


Nabors, A. G., & Zientek, L. R. (2020). Developmental mathematics: Students’ predicted outcome value of electronic communication. Journal of College Academic Support Programs, 3(2), pp. 29-40.


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