ItemEmployability of Transgender in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospect(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2022-06) Abedin, Fariha; Sarker, Md. Atiqur RahmanIn this era of human rights movement, the transgender people still remain as one of the critically disadvantaged community in many developing countries. Bangladesh legally recognized them as ‘third gender’ just in the year 2013 and since then a contradiction between being legally recognized and protection of their rights existed. This study examines the consequences of the transformation of this socio-cultural status of Hijra (transgender) into a legal one and analyses their basic rights, focusing on their employment rights. The right to employment is a universal right for all, including the transgender, where the Constitution of Bangladesh also ensures equal rights and provides equality before law with the prohibition of gender discrimination in availing employment facilities. This research evaluates the problems and hindrances as well as the support and enforcement of existing social and legal system of the country in development of the transgender’s’ lives. To come into conclusion, five In-depth Interviews (IDIs) from transgender and two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted along with extensive field observations. The findings revealed, albeit the legal recognition and social adjustment of the Hijra’s, present public mindset and the policy gap are major concerns till date. ItemBlack Twitter Representations of #Kavanaugh Hearing(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2020-06) Bland, Dorothy; Moody-Ramirez, MiaPublic reaction on Twitter exploded after Christine Blasey Ford testified she was sexually assaulted by Brett Kavanaugh when they were teens. He denied her allegations and became the 114th justice on the U.S. Supreme Court on Oct. 6, 2018. This study employs feminist theory in analyzing tweets containing "Kavanaugh Hearings" and "Black Twitter." Findings indicate most tweets studied fell into five key categories: call to action, historical repetition, steep racial/political divide, white privilege and informational. ItemJournal of Research on Women and Gender [Volume 5, Issue 1](Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2014-09)The Journal of Research on Women and Gender is a peer-reviewed online electronic publication. The mission of the Journal is to promote critical dialogue about the experiences of women and persons of various gender identities in diverse cultural contexts. ItemJournal of Research on Women and Gender [Volume 6, Issue 1](Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2015-06)The Journal of Research on Women and Gender is a peer-reviewed online electronic publication. The mission of the Journal is to promote critical dialogue about the experiences of women and persons of various gender identities in diverse cultural contexts. ItemJournal of Research on Women and Gender [Volume 7, Issue 1](Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2016-06)The Journal of Research on Women and Gender is a peer-reviewed online electronic publication. The mission of the Journal is to promote critical dialogue about the experiences of women and persons of various gender identities in diverse cultural contexts. ItemJournal of Research on Women and Gender [Volume 8, Issue 1](Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2018-06) ItemJournal of Research on Women and Gender [Volume 9, Issue 1](Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) ItemPerceptions of Educational Philosophies: Written Reflections of Female Saudi Arabian Pre-Service Teachers(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2020-06) Thomas, Doleatha J.; Guzman Foster, Sandra L.The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary investigation into the perceptions of educational philosophies as viewed through the individual lens and ‘voice’ of master-level, female Saudi pre-service teachers studying abroad in the United States. This study explores the personal and cultural belief systems juxtaposed with intentions for classroom practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the extent to which transformative learning occurs through the reflective thinking process. Transformative learning theory and critical feminist theory frame this study. A qualitative design with a constructive paradigm were utilized to examine the handwritten reflections of eleven Saudi women enrolled in a higher education course in a 4-year university located in southwest region of the United States. Five educational philosophies taken into account include perennialism, essentialism, pragmatism, reconstructionism, and existentialism. Through the manual coding process and thematic data analysis, four major themes emerged: cultural beliefs and values, academic freedom and personal empowerment, intentions for classroom practices and beyond, and learning through reflection. Findings revealed multiple educational philosophic orientations, based on cultural beliefs and values, and transformative learning through reflective thinking with specific intentions for future classroom practices. Implications and recommendations are also included. ItemShifting Subjectivities, Cultivating Safe Spaces: Mothers' Perspectives on Virginity in Contemporary Turkey(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2020-06) Aygunes, Asli; Golombisky, KimFollowing Ozyegin’s (2015) work on Turkish youth and virginity, this study considers Turkish mothers’ negotiations of the Turkish discourse of virginity. We define the discourse of virginity in Turkey as the historical, cultural, political, and religious ideologies surrounding women’s chastity, which sustains asymmetrical gender relations. Via interviews in 2016, we aimed to understand how seven members of one urban social circle interpret the role of virginity in their lives and the lives of their adult children. The participant mothers, aged 47- 59, were all heterosexual college-educated Muslim women with white-collar careers. Participant mothers discussed virginity from what we interpret as three “tactical subjectivities” (Sandoval, 1991, 2000): modern women who believe in women’s rights, modern mothers who respect their children’s choices regarding premarital sex, and caring mothers who worry about social ostracism from such choices in a society that demands chastity for unmarried women. Tactically shifting among these three subjectivities, participant mothers talked about communicating survival strategies to their children while cultivating safe spaces that empower them to subvert what participant mothers view as repressive aspects of the Turkish discourse of virginity. We frame our analysis with third space feminism understood as subtle practices of resistance emerging from interstitial social locations, such as the participant mothers managing modern secular lives in a religiously conservative society. ItemPatriarchy and Colonization: The "Brooder House" for Gender Inequality in Nigeria(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2020-06) Jaiyeola, Emmanuel OlorunfemiThe battle for women’s suffrage at English Parliament in 1866 marked the earliest recorded legal battle for equality between men and women. Since then, the issue of gender equality has grown to become a global concern. While it is generally agreed that human rights apply to all human beings (men and women included), women’s fundamental rights and freedom have been limited by patriarchal practices and traditions. The situation is worse in many African societies where colonial legacies and patriarchal culture assign superior roles to men and subordinate roles to women. In Nigeria, these practices have reduced the status of women to be inferior to their male counterparts. This in turn makes it difficult for women to fully participate in as many social, political, and economic activities as men do. Patriarchal culture has brought tremendous setbacks for women in Nigeria, which is the focus of this paper. In addition, stereotyping and stratification of jobs, skills, political offices and businesses have become so deep-rooted in patriarchy because of the cultures and ideologies of the society. This began with the traditional gender roles in the pre-colonial era and was reinforced during the colonial era when women were forced out of commercial farming and trading to do food-crop farming and petty trading, which both bring in less money. Presently, this practice keeps women under glass ceilings and in low paying jobs, which contributes largely to most Nigerian women being in poverty, experiencing poor health, and suffering from various abuse due to the inequality of social status between genders. Therefore, this paper critically discusses the historical perspective and analyzes how colonial legacies and patriarchy are nurturing gender inequality in Nigeria using hegemonic and Nigerian masculinity as the theoretical frame work of analysis. ItemChallenges Facing Emirati College Student Mothers Post Childbirth(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Tennant, Lilly; Dickson, MartinaThe vast majority of women in higher education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are first generation college students and about over half of them are student mothers. The education of women has been the top priority of the UAE government. The intent of the study was to examine the needs and challenges of student mothers at a teacher education campus in Abu Dhabi. The research study, using a mixed methods approach, surveyed about 71 students and interviewed about 13 students, a representative sample of student mothers, about experiences after their return to college post childbirth. The findings of the study revealed the physical and academic challenges faced by the mothers and their ways of coping in order to pursue their education within the constraints of the college policies. Recommendations and implications for teacher education colleges are discussed. ItemOf Immigration, Cosmopolitanism, and Diversity: Lost Identity and the Challenge of Integration for Women in Hiromi Goto's Chorus of Mushrooms(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Prorokova, TatianaBringing together the problems of immigration, cosmopolitanism, and diversity, the article considers immigration as a powerful force of globalization. Examining Hiromi Goto's novel Chorus of Mushrooms, the article unwraps the intricate issue of immigration, focusing specifically on the lives of Japanese (and later, Japanese Canadian) women in Canada. Considering the well-known concept of melting pot -- that the novel overtly questions -- the article demonstrates that the life of an immigrant even in cosmopolitan and ethnically diverse western societies can turn into a personal and generational nightmare. The article pays close attention to the novel's technique of mixing two languages, i.e., English and Japanese, as well as two fonts, to demonstrate how the issue of otherness becomes twisted and the immigrants turn into strangers both in their native culture and in the new one. To corroborate this idea, the article also considers some of the main problems for immigrants that the novel singles out, including new climate, food, traditions, as well as one's appearance, particularly when it is ethnically charged. Finally, the article examines the issue of otherness as a gendered problem, claiming that it is particularly hard for women to lead the life of an immigrant, preserve a specific culture, and be able to pass it on to further generations. ItemDisrupting Students' Misunderstandings (and misgivings) about Feminism through a Popular Press Book: A Feminist Research Team's Practices as a Site of Analysis(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Christopher, Samantha D.; Sharp, Elizabeth A.In response to the sustained and widespread resistance to feminism within U.S. classrooms and the underuse of undergraduate researchers in large universities, our research team experimented with a popular press book on feminism. Using our research team as a case study, we argue that the book, Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters, offered benefits including: (a) advanced understandings of feminism, (b) increased comfort with critiquing arguments, and (c) increased confidence and application of feminism. We hope the paper encourages other feminist-identified scholars to expand their use of feminist popular culture texts to cultivate interest, increase understanding of fundamental feminist sensibilities, and ultimately enhance their research projects while working with undergraduate researchers. ItemFeminist Knitting: How Stitching Together a Visual Statement for the 2017 Women’s March(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Moody, Mia; Rogers, Robert; Rogers, FranciAfter a divisive 2016 U.S. presidential election, a large segment of the population took to social media to express their frustrations and to find solace in the unity created by the Pussyhat Project™ and the 2017 Women’s March. This content analysis examines how Facebook users framed the social movement. Findings indicate that the platform allowed a directed viewpoint to catch momentum. True to fourth wave feminism, the social movement received widespread media coverage and the pink hats became an iconic visual symbol of the Women’s March that helped empower participants and raised awareness about various social injustices. Item“It Ain’t a Fight Unless you Hit Me”: Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of African American College Women(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Walley-Jean, J. CelesteAlthough some research has suggested that, generally, African American college-aged women are at a relatively higher risk for experiencing interpersonal violence (IPV) than college-aged women from other ethnic groups, little research has examined the experience of IPV, as opposed to the prevalence, specifically among African American college students. A lack of understanding among practitioners and researchers of how violence is conceptualized among African American college-aged women may lead to a deficit in the knowledge needed to develop and implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. Through the qualitative exploration of responses to an open-ended questionnaire asking how participants resolve conflict in their relationships and their perceptions of their and their partners' actions, the current paper expands the understanding of interpersonal violence in a sample of African American college women. The current paper also provides implications for the development of culturally-relevant prevention and intervention strategies and future research within this population. ItemSocial Exclusion and Official Recognition of Hijra in Bangladesh(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2019-06) Aziz, Abdul; Azhar, SameenaThis research study investigates the processes of social exclusion and legal recognition of hijra in Bangladesh, focusing on experiences in accessing work and health services. The goal of this study was to explore how official recognition of hijra as a third gender shaped experiences of social exclusion, following the new third gender registration policy. We conducted fifteen interviews with hijra and five interviews with key informants. Thematic analyses of interviews were conducted to better understand processes of social exclusion of hijra. Findings demonstrate that while the Bangladeshi government reports that they officially recognize hijra as a third gender group, hijra have not actually been able to legally register under this category. Similarly, they have been unable to find gainful employment or easily access health services. Without legal protections for their civil rights, hijra lack the ability to make legal claims of discrimination. These findings suggest that (1) hijra require increased vocational training and employment opportunities, (2) healthcare providers who interact with hijra in medical settings require greater sensitization, and (3) legal advocacy is needed to ensure the protection of hijra's civil rights. ItemMore than a Womb: Recognizing and Protecting ‘Gestational Motherhood’ in India’s Commercial Surrogacy Industry(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2018-06) Mukherjee, MeghnaThe advancements in reproductive medicine over the past thirty years have redefined what constitutes parenthood, and more specifically motherhood. These improvements have fostered a global market around reproductive labor, most notably that of commercial surrogacy. Considering a case study of commercial surrogacy in Kolkata, India, this paper presents research on the question of how reproductive technology is redefining motherhood, and more specifically how commercial surrogacy has given rise to the experience of 'gestational motherhood.' Although there are numerous issues surrounding exploitation of surrogate mothers in India, this research will focus solely on the need to recognize and protect gestational motherhood and the emotional labor it involves. Rather than examining surrogate-client relations, this paper gives voice to Indian service-side actors to better understand their rationales and concerns related to reproductive labor. Moreover, this discussion employs a constructive approach, aiming to utilize service-side actors' perspectives to inform policy approaches that can support vulnerable surrogate mothers and safeguard their emotional labor. ItemDiscourses of Gender Identity and Transition in Later Life(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2018-06) Jen, SarahThere is a small but growing field of inquiry exploring the needs and experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming older adults (TGNC). While large, quantitative studies are useful for illustrating differences at the population level, in-depth qualitative research is needed to offer interpretations that reflect the complexity and nuance of individual lives to better illuminate the reality of living as a TGNC elder. Guided by a social constructionist epistemology, this study reports findings from a Foucauldian discourse analysis of interviews with two older women who had previously undergone sexual reassignment or gender confirmation surgery to examine how these women talk about their identities and gender transitions, how their language might be informed by or resistant to their social context, and what they might possibly gain from using language in these ways. Each woman chose to present her gender transition in vastly different ways, illustrating the wide variation in conceptualizing transitions as a critical aspect of one's identity versus a minor shift in the scope of a larger self-development narrative. They took up the roles of expert, educator, consumer, and transgender individual in differing ways, demonstrating varied approaches to resilience and resistance. These findings are explored for their potential to inform direct practice and research with older transgender adults. ItemThe Tentacles of Neoliberalism: How the Master’s Tools Became a Vehicle for Activism(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2018-06) Womack, Malia LeeIn the late 19th century Anglo European liberalism was adapted into the United States, which asserted formal equality of white men and legitimacy of slavery. Centuries later, this legacy transformed into neoliberalism and impacts socio-economic hierarchies in the US and globally because the nation is a global hegemonic empire. In order to increase competition and minimize transaction costs, neoliberalism's key components are free trade, deregulation of markets, reduced social spending by governments, and privatization of economies. Supporters of the theory argue that without government intervention the market will naturally work itself out due to supply, demand, and people's self-determination and their interest in personal economic gain. In response to the US superpower hegemonically supporting this model, movements in labor occurred from less developed countries to industrialized countries because of the concentration of wealth in those nations. Immigrants were drawn to capital gain out of the desire to have greater consumption powers and monetary resources for them and their families, yet after they migrate their labor is vulnerable to exploitation. To combat this a body of nonprofits formed. Yet, non-governmental organizations often become carriers of dominant neoliberal global agendas supported by the US state, which expects impoverished beings to take responsibility for their own economic empowerment. This paper interrogates the activist strategy of the NGO, Mujeres Unidas y Activas, to investigate how the organization is implicated in neoliberal principles that the US influences the globe to support in order to preserve its empire and global hegemon. ItemBringing Home the Bacon while Staying Out of the Fire: Communicatively Negotiating the Working Mother Identity(Texas State University, Center for Diversity and Gender Studies, 2018-06) DeGreeff, Becky L.; Littlefield, Robert S.Women choose to become employed for a variety of reasons including financial necessity and/or career aspirations. Some of these women also chose to work while simultaneously raising a family. The communication strategies of employed mothers when confronting comments made by coworkers and associates about their life choices to work outside of the home are examined through the perspectives of two types of working women: the mother with a "job" and the mother with a "career." Three themes describing the purpose of work, personal desires, and characteristics of criticism and their responses are drawn from interviews with employed mothers. Passive and aggressive communication strategies are identified as a means to confront the criticisms. Findings reveal the mother with a "job" is more likely to be expected to stay employed in order to help provide for her family and is criticized for her parenting choices. On the other hand, the mother with a "career" is more likely to be criticized for her desire to remain employed after having children in order to work toward career advancement. The differences between the women are discussed along with implications for family policy.