Public Administration Directed Research

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 508
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    Establishing the Relationship Between Sewer Surcharge Fees and Pollutant Discharges by Industrial Users
    (2022-08) Hicks, Daniel; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Tajalli, Hassan
    Sewer surcharge fees are often implemented by utilities in the United States as part of a larger pretreatment program under the Clean Water Act’s (CWA) regulatory framework. The fees are generally intended to either recoup the cost of treating wastewater with excessive pollution, or to encourage customers to discharge smaller quantities of pollutants. Currently there is no existing research that quantifies the effect of sewer surcharge fees on pollutant discharges, depriving regulators of the ability to design evidence-based sewer surcharge programs. The purpose of this research is to establish the relationship between sewer surcharge fees and pollutant discharges. Specifically, this study examines a secondary dataset with chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharges by 52 industrial users permitted by a large Tennessee utility over a four-year period from 2018-2021. A conceptual framework of formal hypotheses was used to direct a quasi-experimental study of the data. The study uses an interrupted time-series approach for regression analysis to quantify the change in COD discharges between 2018-2019 when there was no fee in place, and 2020-2021 after the fee was implemented. This analysis found no significant relationship between COD discharges and the presence of a sewer surcharge fee. The Conclusion chapter discusses the findings and suggests areas for future research.
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    Brackish Groundwater Desalination: A Decision Support Tool
    (2022-05) Cunningham, Sheila; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Brown, Chris; Spell, Yvonne
    The purpose of this study is to provide water utility decision makers like city managers, water company managers, city council members, etc. with key questions to consider prior to choosing whether to embark on a brackish groundwater desalination program for their utility. The scholarly literature review indicated five areas of greatest importance for consideration when contemplating a brackish groundwater project. Those topics included power source, source water availability, brine concentrate disposal, support for the program and cost. Twenty initial questions from these five topic areas were created and then posed to twelve subject matter experts, via remote interview, for their comment. Experts interviewed included engineers, water company managers, state association directors, both state and federal agency program administrators, and a retired city manager. With the guidance of these experts, four new “qualifying questions” were created. Six questions were changed extensively. Six questions were modified slightly, and eight questions remained unchanged.
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    An Ideal Model for Suicide Prevention Programs in the Fire Service: Evaluating the Suicide Prevention Programs of Texas Commission on Fire Protection Certified Special District Fire Departments in Hays County, TX
    (2021-08) Smith, Autumn D.; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Wallace, Marc; Matthews, Bryan
    The fire service is facing a crisis of firefighter suicides. The rate of firefighter suicides and suicidal ideation is on the rise. Current programs are lacking in a holistic approach to suicide prevention. This study aimed to use available literature to develop a preliminary suicide prevention framework, to assess Hays County Emergency Services District’s (HCESD’s) fire departments using the framework, and finally, to use those assessments to make recommendations to establish and/or improve suicide prevention programs in HCESD’s fire departments. To create the framework an extensive literature review was conducted of existing programs. Once the framework was established the five ESD fire departments within Hays County were contacted with a request for documentation. Using document analysis and coding sheets, each fire department was evaluated for presence and quality of the individual suicide prevention program for each department. The analysis showed that these fire departments are unprepared for the rising suicide rate epidemic. Based on these findings, further research is suggested and cooperation of fire departments within HCESDs is recommended to create a more robust program.
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    Utilizing a Cultural Wealth Framework to Examine First-Generation Resources Available at Public Universities in Texas
    (2021-08) Rangarajan, Nandhini; Fields, Billy; Bermea, Megan
    In a country facing unprecedented income inequality, higher education can become an important tool for equity. Historically, postsecondary institutions are not built with the diversity of student experience in mind and therefore are not a space where all can achieve. First-generation and low-income students face unique obstacles that contribute to lower persistence rates, in part due to higher education undervaluing their social capital. The purpose of this study is twofold, first to identify best practice interventions that lead to first-generation students’ persistence in higher education and second, to compare the best practices standards to the strategies being deployed by the public, four-year universities in Texas. The best practices identified in the literature review are organized using critical race theorist TJ Yosso’s Community Cultural Wealth framework, categorizing the practice in one of six forms of capital: aspirational, linguistic, familial, social, navigational, and resistance. The best practice rubric was used to conduct content analysis on each of the 37 public universities websites and social media accounts, when applicable. The results showed there is still ample room for improvements in the supports provided by public Texas universities, which is evident by the consistently low six-year graduation rates. There are some institutions exceeding in specific areas and overall flagship institutions of university systems typically provide stronger offerings to their first-generation students. This research was completed in a time of turbulence, in the wake of the Coronavirus pandemic, where universities are deploying new and creative services to stay connected with their students. Now, more than ever, it is crucial for universities to support students in ways that feel culturally affirming.
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    A Model Assessment Tool for a Comprehensive Youth Reentry and Reintegration Strategy: A Case Study of the Travis County Juvenile Probation Department’s SOAR Reentry Court Program
    (2021-08) Upshaw, Denise; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Tajalli, Hassan; Bell, Melissa
    This research focuses on maximizing the effectiveness and outcomes of juvenile reentry and reintegration, by compiling components that comprise an ideal model for a juvenile reentry and reintegration strategy serving the target population. First, a preliminary model was developed using scholarly and practical literature that revealed four components: parent engagement and support, case management, youth motivation, and accountability measures. Next, a case study was conducted on the Travis County Juvenile Probation Department’s “Strengthening Opportunities for Achieving Reentry” (SOAR) Reentry Court program – comparing SOAR’s program components against the literature’s ideal type components. SOAR’s program administrators gave input via focused interviews about the structure and makeup of their program. Additionally, direct observations were conducted of SOAR court hearings to witness the use of these strategies. Next, the data gathered concluded that SOAR’s components mostly aligned with the preliminary model. However, with strengthening subcomponents under parent engagement and support and accountability measures, SOAR would be fully aligned with the literature. Furthermore, a new component emerged: Nonprofit Organization Support. Juvenile justice agencies can refer to this model when creating or enhancing juvenile reentry strategies for youth experiencing the juvenile justice system. Finally, a recommendation was made for SOAR administrators to strengthen the accountability measures component because it lacked significant evidence.
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    Gauging Water Conservation Efforts of Central Texas Municipalities against Best Management Practices set Forth by the Texas Water Development Board
    (2020-12) Spell, Yvonne K.; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Brown, Christopher; Molis, Joseph
    Texas drought has been a contentious issue in the state since the middle of the 20th century. As Texas population continues to experience tremendous growth, serious consideration should be given to future water supply for the state. A bottom up approach from municipalities would be a broad range approach to combat this issue. The purpose of this study is to compare efforts of 5 municipalities in the Austin region against Best Management Practices (BMP) created by the Texas Water Development Board. Water Conservation Plans from the cities of Cedar Park, Georgetown, Leander, Pflugerville and Temple were all judged against the Best Management Practices. The methodology used was comparative document analysis. Two cities showed full or partial presence of the BMPs in about 60% of the elements, one city showed 51%, and the remaining two cities both showed around 40%. All of the cities presented well written, detailed Water Conservation Plans; the plans varied from 7 pages to 64 pages in length. The results found that this is a solid start for future water conservation efforts on behalf of the municipalities. Continued evaluation, based on future water modeling, should assist in overcoming the predicted future water supply shortage for the state.
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    Toward Equal Access: A Model for Lay Advocacy Programs that Serve People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
    (2020-12) Bell, Melissa; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Shields, Patricia; Montgomery, Douglas
    This research focuses on lay advocacy programs housed in or contracted by state government agencies that specialize in serving persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Efforts are needed to formalize and advance these programs to maximize their effectiveness. The purpose of this research is to compile components that comprise an ideal model for lay advocacy programs serving the target population. First, a preliminary model was developed using scholarly and practical literature that revealed five components: a defined scope, adequate funding and administrative support, qualified staff, engaging and collaborating with the community, and program evaluation. Next, advocacy program directors from state agencies around the country gave input via survey about the structure and makeup of their programs, followed by focused interviews to evaluate and refine the components of the model. The data gathered showed the model could be refined by the addition of subcomponents to identify the demographic within the target population to serve and determining the program’s philosophies. A new component emerged: technology infrastructure. Entities can refer to this model when creating, administering, evaluating, or enhancing lay advocacy programs for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. The study showed that almost every state with a dedicated state agency serving the target population provides advocacy-related services. A recommendation was made for these programs to form a network across the country for sharing information, resources, and tools to maximize existing resources. In addition, efforts must continue to formalize the profession, including establishing certification, ethical standards, and training programs for advocates.
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    Beyond Policy Innovation: Analyzing Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception
    (2020-08) Bermea, Megan M.; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Mora, Sherri; Verschoyle, Bailey
    Purpose: Access to highly-effective birth control methods, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), is essential to advance the health and well-being of women and their families, and is a critical key to address persistent rates of unintended pregnancy in the U.S. However, considerable barriers to LARC access exist and policy innovation is necessary to drive progress and improve maternal health outcomes. The purpose of this applied research project is to categorize and describe the innovative policies and practices states have implemented to improve access to LARC and the outcomes of this innovation. Methods: This research involves content analysis of a standardized selection of Medicaid State Plans, family planning policy manuals, LARC toolkits and guidelines, and other applicable state documents that provide information on access to LARC and contraception. The research sample was chosen using stratified random sampling of 25 states (n=25) based on their expansion of Medicaid. This study analyzed state LARC policies in the categories of LARC billing and payment, operations, training, and outreach. Findings: This study found that within the research sample, complete evidence of LARC training policy innovation was represented by 24% of states, complete evidence of billing and payment innovation was found in 16% of states, complete evidence of outreach innovation was found in 12% of states, and none of the states in the research sample showed complete evidence of LARC operational innovation. States must fully operationalize their innovative LARC policies to yield measurable results and moreover, LARC funding innovation and Medicaid expansion are other key factors that have tremendous potential to increase access to LARC and improve maternal health outcomes.
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    Case Study: Succession Planning and Leadership Development at Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
    (2019-08) Walker, Jason; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Falconnier, Jamie
    Baby boomers reach retirement age at alarmingly high rates throughout the United States daily. Thus, creating deficiencies in production, efficiency, and institutional knowledge in countless public and private entities. Organizations that focus on succession planning and leadership development emphasize building pipelines of supervisors and managers ready to step into recently vacated executive and senior-level positions. This study focuses on succession planning and leadership development at Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD). By utilizing a model developed in previous Applied Research Projects (Sharon Ley, 2002 & Melissa Whitmore, 2006), a thorough literature review of the latest research suggests organizations still struggle to grasp the importance of implementing succession planning and leadership development programs. Secondly, strategies were assessed and gauged by applying the practical ideal type characteristics to TPWD’s approach to succession planning and leadership development. Finally, based on the review, the case study includes recommendations to improve TPWD’s procedures and policies on effectively implementing a successful succession planning and leadership development program. Document analysis and focused interviews provided the optimal methodology to evaluate the research. The findings indicate department-wide recognition on the importance of implementing a succession plan, but lack of resources prevents fully establishing any dynamic program. Additional recommendations include a dedicated position coordinator, integrating succession planning into the existing leadership development program, creating a tracking system to monitor employee progress, immediately commencing their mentoring pilot program, improve communication between supervisor and manager with employees regarding career advancement, and identifying specific positions as “linchpin” or critical. Full implementation of the recommendations can improve and ensure a strong foundation of future leaders to continue the stewardship Texas natural and cultural resources.
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    Perceptions of Employers About the Master of Public Administration (MPA) Program at Texas State University
    (2019-08) Tan, Immanuel Zhen Miin; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Mora, Sherri; Garza, Ana Liza
    The purpose of this research is to describe the perceptions and opinions of employers about the graduates of the Master of Public Administration (MPA) program at Texas State University in regard to their knowledge, skills, and abilities. This research benefits the MPA program at Texas State University by knowing how the labor market perceives its graduates. An employer assessment survey was created to examine how effectively MPA graduates of Texas State University demonstrated their acquired knowledge, skills, and abilities at their respective workplace by surveying the perceptions and opinions of their employers. The employer assessment survey included four major categories, which were the MPA program mission statement, MPA program student learning outcomes, NASPAA accreditation standards for MPA program on student learning, and other relevant skill sets. Survey results revealed that most subcategories in each of the four major categories achieved more that 80% of agreement percentages, which indicated that MPA graduates are meeting most of the expectations of these categories at their workplaces. This research study provided several recommendations for future study.
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    The National Flood Insurance Program in Texas: An Assessment of Non-Participating Communities
    (2019-08) White, Morgan; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Brown, Christopher; Reyes, Stephanie
    The purpose of this research is to describe the characteristics of Texas communities that do not participate in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The secondary aim is to prioritize which communities are the best candidates for participation in order to target NFIP enrollment outreach efforts. The NFIP reduces a community’s flood risk by offering federally-subsidized flood insurance to residents and by requiring communities to regulate floodplain development. Non-participating communities face various sanctions that negatively impact a community’s flood resilience. This paper provides background information and a brief history of the NFIP to provide context for this research. The scholarly literature supports describing non-participating communities in the following categories: flood risk factors, institutional capacity, type of municipality, floodplain map status, and history of NFIP participation. A scoring system was created based on the flood risk and institutional capacity variables and communities were assigned a score from 0 to 4, indicating their relative suitability for NFIP enrollment. This research identified the top 20 municipalities and the top 5 counties to target for NFIP enrollment outreach efforts. This research concludes with a discussion of the limitations of this study and ideas for future researchers.
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    Preventing the Big Three: Exploring a Fraternity’s Chapter Advisory Board Training using Lundvall’s Knowledge Taxonomy to Prevent Sexual Assault, Hazing, and Alcohol Abuse
    (2019-08) Montgomery, Douglas; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Mora, Sherri; Garrett, Jeremy
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a training program for volunteers who devote their time to their fraternity as alumni. The evaluation is through the lens of preventing sexual assault, hazing and alcohol abuse, or more succinctly put, the big three. First, using Dr. Bengt-Ake Lundvall’s taxonomy of knowledge, this study looks at scholarly research on how to prevent the big three and what a chapter advisor needs to know to help prevent the big three from occurring. Second, there is a discussion on the methodology used in this study and the strengths and weaknesses of using only document analysis and participant observation. Third, this study evaluates a training program for an anonymous fraternity with many chapters all over the United States at both public and private institutions of higher learning. Finally, this study explains the results of the evaluation and provides recommendations for improvement to the training program and future research opportunities. Most of the need-to-know material was present in the existing training program but some of it was not obvious to the passive participant. There was no mention of Title IX at all in the training. Overall, the training was fairly robust for a one-hour training program.
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    The Case for Mary Jane: A Study of Student Perceptions on Marijuana Legalization
    (2019-08) Mendoza, Yvette; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Wallace, Marc; Lateef, Shifa
    Marijuana legalization is continuously up for debate in the legislature and throughout the United States, many states have legalized a variety of marijuana uses and decriminalized minor marijuana offenses. While many studies have been conducted on individuals’ opinions and perceptions on marijuana use and legalization, these studies are lacking in Texas. This research primarily examines the attitudes and perceptions of undergraduate and graduate students, enrolled in Political Science and Public Administration programs at Texas State University. This research was accomplished through the distribution of a survey that focused on four categories: position, use, opinions/perceptions, and demographics. The research found that 89.4% of these students are for marijuana legalization. Additionally, student classification and parental status play a significant role in whether an individual is for or against marijuana legalization. The study also found that, although there is no correlation between age and annual income on student stance of marijuana legalization, as individuals age and their annual income increases, they are less likely to support marijuana legalization. This study focused on student opinions/perceptions as public opinion is a strong driver of future legislative issues and the purpose for change. These students are potential future political and public leaders in Texas which could shape the future of marijuana in the state. Therefore, it is important that studies such as this one be conducted throughout Texas to gain insight and understanding as to what is driving Americans to change their views towards marijuana. By doing so, Texas representatives can make informed decisions for the wellbeing and interests of their citizens.
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    A Web Content Analysis of Veteran Services in U.S. Cities
    (2019-08) Lee, Tina A.; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Balanoff, Howard; Garrett, Jeremy
    The purpose of this study is to gauge veteran-related support programs offered in 30 U.S cities using web content analysis. The services listed on the city websites will be assessed using the City of Austin veterans’ program as the benchmark. This research will categorize the services offered and provide some insight and recommendations to other cities that are considering the initiation of services for veterans in their jurisdiction. The methodology used can be separated into four categories: Level of Support for Veteran Related Programs, Tools Available to Help Veterans, Veteran Needs and Services, and Resources for Program Development. The cities were assessed by the subcategories of specific findings of the highest needs that veterans and service members may require. Each website was gauged on the findings, programs, services, and resources they provide to measure the standards of the correlated cities with the City of Austin Veterans Program. The results showed that a possible federal enaction of veteran support within cities might be influential in providing specific measures and special training to ensure that every city has a similar level of available support as has been done by some states that have implemented them in the cities they govern. The websites do not disclose all services the program offers, reviews of the personnel, and level of service provided to those seeking assistance. A transitioning veteran’s first step to seeking resources might by through searching locally in the city in which they reside. The content provided on these city websites regarding veteran services will either make a difference or have a difficult process in terms of gaining the information and assistance they are searching for.
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    Houston Police Department: An Exploration of Social Media to Improve Police-Public Relations
    (2019-05) Gilbeaux, Troy S.; Rangarajan, Nandhini; Varacalli, Thomas; Verschoyle, Bailey
    This applied research project is intended to be an exploratory study on the methods used by the Houston Police Department to interact with the citizenry through social media on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. The study includes a historical view on what the Houston Police Department is and how it has evolved over the decades, as well as methods other major law enforcement agencies have utilized for community engagement purposes through social media platforms. Through analysis of various academic sources and a comparison of data compiled from Houston Police Department’s various social media platforms, this research project will look at what the department has done over a three- month period to engage the public and make recommendations to improve these efforts for the benefit of the department and the citizens they serve.
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    Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Businesses and Government Contracting: Assessing the State of Texas Procurement and Contract Management Guide Using the Federal Acquisition Regulation
    (2019-08) Funari, Nicholas C.; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Mora, Sherri; Garza, Ana Liza
    Purpose: The purpose of this research is threefold. First, this research identified best practices related to procurement practices used by Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Businesses (SDVOB) and developed a framework for the assessment of such practices. In particular, this framework was developed by using sources such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR, henceforth) and other scholarly sources. Next, this framework is used to assess procurement policies pertaining to SDVOSBs in Texas. Finally, this research provides recommendations to refine Texas procurement policies. Methods: This research used document analysis as a method of data collection. This research gauges the eight best procurement policies for SDVOSBs and then makes recommendations for the state of Texas based on the findings. This research focused heavily on the policies most often used in federal procurement. These policies have a proven track record called Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) policies. By using document analysis to review the rules and regulations contained in the FAR, this research sought to provide the state of Texas with recommendations derived from the document analysis method of data collection. Findings: Set-aside policies deal with nearly half of the overall policies found in the federal standard reviewed by this research. Set-asides are a fundamental component in government contracting and instrumental for SDVOSBs. By using the federal standard, policy recommendations for the State of Texas Procurement and Contract Management Guide are made.
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    An Analysis of Human Rights Violations in the East, South, and Southeast Asian Regions: 2012-2016
    (2019-08) Fritscher, Kristin; Rangarajan, Nanhini; Wallace, Marc; Verschoyle, Bailey
    The purpose of this study is to describe the types of human rights violations occurring in Asian countries, from 2012 to 2016, through the analysis of the U.S. State Department’s Country Reports on Human Rights Practice. The paper uses Hernandez’s (2007) human rights violation categories that were taken from Donnelly and Howard’s (1988) literature on the different types of human rights. However, this study adds an additional category from Donnelly and Howard’s literature that was not included in Hernandez’s research. The categories are: 1) Violations of Survival Rights, 2) Violations of Membership Rights, 3) Violations of Protection Rights, 4) Violations of Empowerment Rights and 5) Violations of Anomalous Rights. To study these categories of human rights, content analysis was used to analyze the summary of the Country Reports. While examining the documents, the human rights violations were recorded as having occurred “frequently”, “occasionally” or “did not occur”. Once the summaries of each nation from 2012-2016 were examined, frequency statistics were employed to determine how often the human rights violations were documented as having occurred in the summary of the Country Reports. The study found that most human rights violations occurred “occasionally” in the South, East, and Southeast regions of Asia. In addition, the paper also found that certain Asian countries were documented as having the most human rights violations per coding category. For example, North Korea and the Philippines were the nations that had the most rights violations for the occurs “occasionally” coding category. Finally, the study ends the paper by acknowledging the challenges of this research while providing recommendations for further research.
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    Airport Strategic Planning; Master Planning: An Exploratory Research Project
    (2019-05) Ramirez, Nicholas; Shields, Patricia M.; Wallace, Marc; Brooks, Reginald
    Purpose: Airport master plans have been used for decades but research done on the effectiveness, and its alternatives is limited and still in the beginning phase. This research begins to fill in the gaps. The purpose of this applied research project is to explore the facilitators and barriers of effective strategic planning at airports and the alternates. A review of the scholarly literature on airport strategic planning and airport master planning developed the three key concepts. After conducting interviews with airport professionals, a preliminary assessment was developed to begin addressing the challenges with each concept. Methodology: A standardized, open ended interview was developed to assist with gathering qualitative data. The concepts were identified in the literature review as a framework to construct the interview questions. The sample of this study includes four airport planning officials and two airport executives that were interviewed to discuss the challenges and successes of airport master planning around the country. Findings: initial findings suggests the respondents agree each airport has similar facilitators and barriers when implementing an airport master planning. The issues are consistent with the literature and the following recommendations were outputs of this research project: - Develop realistic goals that support the customers’ needs and ensure the goals receive community and political support early in the process. - Engage political figures early in the process and incorporate their ideas, airport must garner support from key political figures for large project funding. - Provide the FAA with a master plan that clearly demonstrates the need for new facilities to support passenger demand and meaningful justification. - Improve communication across the organization. - Ensure the master plan can be funded as presented.
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    Twitter and Dog Adoption: An Examination of Factors to Predict Successful Dog Placement vs Euthanasia in New York City Animal Care Centers
    (2019-05) Bell, Kristen; Shields, Patricia M.; Smith, David; Falconnier, Jamie
    The aim of this study is to identify the main phenotypic factors that contributed to the successful placement of 90 dogs housed at the publicly funded New York City Animal Care Centers by examining Twitter profiles of At-Risk dogs. These dogs were placed on the At-Risk list due to space, illness, injury, behavioral problems or excessive fear. After an extensive review of relevant literature, a conceptual framework of hypotheses development was selected to determine the nature of the relationship of the independent variables to the dichotomous dependent variable of rescued or euthanized. The hypotheses were formed around the variables of coat color, sex, age, and Twitter engagement. The unit of analysis for this research were individual dogs housed at NYCACCs. Twitter profiles of the dogs chosen for this study were examined to collect data on coat color, age, sex and social media engagement. The dogs in the study spent time a varying amount of time at one of the 5 NYCACCs between January of 2019 and the end of March of 2019. Inferential statistics were performed to determine the presence or absence of a correlation between the variables. The findings of the study found no relationship between the variables tested. Therefore, Twitter users had no bias when promoting a dog’s profile. This research concludes with a discussion of other factors that may have contributed to a dog being rescued or euthanized.
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    Incident Response Plans for State Government: A Preliminary Content Analysis
    (2019-05) Banks, Corey; Shields, Patricia M.; DeSoto, William; Earl, Travon
    Purpose: With cyberattacks on the rise state government need to be prepared for cyber incidents. Therefore, the purpose of this preliminary research is to first identify key elements of a cyber incident response plan using the literature; second, assess available state cyber incident response plans using the key elements and lastly, make recommendations to improve state incident response plans using the results of the assessment. Methodology: Incident response plans were broken down into three major categories derived from the literature: incident response team structure, handling an incident, and coordination and information sharing. A content analysis was completed to compare the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) framework to the state incident response plans. Findings: The finding showed that there was significant involvement from the states' governors; that the state plans were generic but had a diversity of names. The incident response plan was broken down into three major categories which were incident response team structure, handling an incident and coordination and information sharing. The first category incident response team structure six states had a minimal discussion, and two had no reference to "Chief Information Officer." The second category handling an incident eight of the ten states were rated as "well done" or "adequate" for "Preparation, "Detection and Analysis" and "Containment Eradication and Recovery." Lastly, coordination and information sharing nine of the ten states were rated as "well done" or "adequate." With limited manpower, it is imperative that IT teams be highly proficient in their duties. The governors have given these agencies the freedom to tailor policies, plans, and team models according to their manpower. Most plans cited the NIST framework and tailor it to their own organizations. Overall the state of Texas had the best incident response plan; however, there is much work needed to be done to strengthen state incident response plans.