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ItemSummary of a Conference on Texas Water Problems and Possible Solutions(Southwest Texas State Teachers College, 1954-12) Southwest Texas State Teachers CollegeOn July 20, 1954, more than five hundred farmers, ranchers, bankers, industrialists, members of the armed forces, teachers, and students gathered on the campus of Southwest Texas State Teachers College to hear leading authorities from private, state, and federal agencies discuss the increasingly acute Texas water problem ans some of the possible solutions. This conference was sponsored by Southwest Texas State Teachers College to meet two of its educational responsibilities: first, to ensure that teachers and prospective teachers studying at this public institution be prepared to present the problem of conservation to the students in the Texas schools; second, to educate the lay public to the nature of the conservation problem. This bulletin has been published in the belief that the addresses delivered to the conference are of such significance to the people of Texas that they should be given the widest dissemination both to teachers and the general public. ItemEmphasis Upon Excellence(Southwest Texas State College Press, 1964-05) Brown, William Frank; Derrick, Leland E.; Flowers, J. Garland; Jackson, Ernest Bryan; Jones, Clem C.; Juel, Martin O.; Norwood, Patrick H.; Martine, Floyd L.; Rogers, J. Lloyd; Stewart, Marjorie O.; Wilson, Joe H.No abstract prepared. ItemThe First Century: School of Applied Arts and Technology at Southwest Texas State University(1999-01) Thompson, G. SueDocument recording the history of the first ninety years of the School of Applied Arts and Technology at Southwest Texas State University. Prepared for the Southwest Texas State University Centennial Anniversary. ItemThe Alexander Technique Applied to the Erick Hawkins Approach to Modern Dance(2004-01) Nance, MichelleThe aim of my proposal was to conduct scholarly research on the compatibility of the Alexander Technique and the Erick Hawkins approach to modern dance. My research was gathered from interviews with two experts (Nada Diachenko of Boulder, Colorado and Cynthia Reynolds of New York, New York) both known for combining the Hawkins approach with the Alexander Technique in university-level dance classes, as well as with private clients. Additionally, I gathered research from other published scholarly material on both approaches, as well as my own experiences through observing and participating in workshops, lessons, and classes throughout the project period. The research gathered allowed me to start the foundation for an article entitled, “Heads From Tails: A Study of the Alexander Technique Applied to the Erick Hawkins Approach to Modern Dance; which is scheduled to be submitted to SOMATICS Magazine; a journal that publishes features of interest to both laypersons and professionals in the mind/body fields. In addition to writing the article, I was also invited to formally present my research at three conferences and workshops in New York, NY, Edmond, OK, and San Marcos, TX from October 2004 to March 2005. (See "List of Presentations" below). Further, I have deepened my working relationship with Nada Diachenko, and have been invited to present my research, teach, and perform with her as part of an exchange program between Centro Cultural in San Jose, Costa Rica and the University of Colorado-Boulder in September of 2006. Moreover, my research has deeply affected the quality and scope of my teaching by keeping me abreast of the latest developments in the fields of dance and somatics. I currently teach modern dance courses in the Erick Hawkins Dance Technique. Because of my findings, I have deepened my understanding of the Hawkins technique and have learned how to apply information from the Alexander work into the training of college-level modern dancers. ItemTopochemistry of Layered Selenide Materials(2004-01) Martin, Benjamin R.This award has been invaluable as I built a new research program at Texas State University. These funds not only gave me the necessary resources to acquire supplies and encourage student involvement, but they also helped to secure external funding by ensuring that these resources would be available at the time this external grant would begin. The research project detailed in the proposal centers on the low temperature modification of selenium-containing structures. Before such work may take place, the framework compounds must be synthesized from elements at high temperatures in a furnace. Since the compounds of interest contain highly reactive alkali metals, for safety these metals are pre-reacted with selenium to generate alkali selenide salts. Each step described above requires specialized glassware and equipment. During the term of this grant we converted the laboratory into a space suitable for solid state synthesis by building a high vacuum line, an inert gas line, and a bank of furnaces. We then synthesized and analyzed more than 60 products including a number of alkali chalcogenide salts, and the low dimensional structures Cs6Re6S12, LiCrS2, and KFeS2. These compounds, and the equipment purchased from this REP grant serve as the basis for the research proposal submitted to the Petroleum Research Fund, which was awarded beginning 9/1/2004. 40% of the funds were used to pay undergraduate students (Rick Gonzales, Ross Spann, and Roy Ouma) during the summer of 2004, and the remainder was used to buy specialized glassware, furnace supplies, electrochemical apparatus, and a license for the ICSD structural database. ItemPreschool Children’s Peer Conflict and Related Teacher Management Strategies(2004-01) Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Blunk, ElizabethTeachers are asking for help in managing young children's peer conflict. There is an urgent need in the early care and education community for more information about conflict management because teachers have reported that preventing and responding to peer conflict, particularly physical conflict, is one of the most difficult aspects of teaching young children. This aspect of teaching contributes to teacher burnout and subsequent staff turnover, both of which have a deleterious impact on the quality of care and education experienced by the children. Additionally, young children need to learn ways of solving their disagreements in verbal, prosocial ways rather than by hurting each other. Solving conflict in a socially responsible manner is a life skill that children can build upon throughout their childhood and beyond. However, there are gaps in the research literature which prevent teachers and those who educate teachers from building a complete and accurate understanding of the dynamics of young children's peer conflicts which, in turn, inhibits the identification of related, effective teacher management strategies. ItemThe SIS process improvement(2004-01) Asiabanpour, BahramProject results: 1- Lab development: Since the time this research was funded, many lab development activities have been done. A room with basic utilities (e.g., Water, Power, and Internet) was permanently assigned to this research. Also all needed development and test equipment, tools, and materials were purchased and placed in the lab. 2- Students involvement: A group of 4 interested students voluntarily joined the research team since January 2004. With their help first Heater was designed and prototyped. Starting Fall 2004, 4 more new students, including one graduate student with computer science background and 3 senior students in Manufacturing Engineering major joined the research team. Graduate student worked on simulation application to design heaters with optimum pattern. 3 manufacturing engineering students helped the PI in design, prototype, and test of different types of heaters and heat masking systems. ItemIssues in Staging Shakespeare Today(2004-01) Ney, CharlesMy project involved assessing the direction of contemporary Shakespearean production in the U.S. While the grant targeted 8 major U.S. Shakespeare theatres, over the course of the last year I actually met with a total of 14 artistic directors. I observed some 26 productions from coast to coast. In the interviews we discussed current directorial approaches and concerns as well as working methods for preparing Shakespeare plays for production. In addition (and outside of the original intentions of this grant) I talked with another 26 directors, associate artistic directors and dramaturges. I also attended the Shakespeare Theatre Association of America’s annual conference and interviewed other artistic directors there. From this research, I have delivered one conference paper and had an article published in the highly prestigious American Theatre. The increased number of interviews and theatres in this study has considerably enlarged its scope and breadth. It has allowed me to evaluate the remarks made by these directors with a greater pool of raw data. I have completed all artistic director transcriptions and reported some results in the American Theatre article cited above. I have finished an overview chapter, “Shakespeare Across America.” I am in the process of completing the remaining transcriptions. This study’s research results will be part of a book, Directing Shakespeare in America: 21st Century Perspectives to be published in 2006/2007. ItemBetween the Arcades and Arcadia(2004-01) Housefield, JamesThis project, which began as an investigation of art and geography in Paris, expanded to become a broader study of the interrelationships between art, geography, and geology. As a result of the research sponsored by this grant, the P.I. has prepared a book prospectus detailing the first extended study to evaluate the historical importance that the city of Paris played in the simultaneous development of modern geographic thought and modern art. In addition, this grant supported research into the importance of geography and geology for a number of American artists ranging from the nineteenth-century painter Thomas Cole to the modern and contemporary artists Joseph Cornell, Roxy Paine, and Robert Smithson. Three conference presentations and one book prospectus resulted from this grant. Four scholarly essays were made possible by this grant three are under review, and one will appear in an edited volume. ItemLeadership Removed: Chronicling the Repercussions of High-Stakes Accountability(2004-01) Nelson, Sarah W.The results of this project, which was focused on chronicling the stories of successful school leaders who were removed from their posts as a result of high-stakes accountability systems, exposed oppressive treatment of school leaders within the Texas high-stakes accountability system and suggest the nationally mandated accountability system may be producing similar results in other states. A report of these findings was published in the Phi Delta Kappan, a highly respected educational journal with an acceptance rate of less than five percent. Moreover, this project led to an additional study focused on the examination of how accountability systems may be affecting students. The researcher is currently conducting a mixed-methods study of the use of instructional time for test preparation. Preliminary results of a comparative analysis of the five highest and five lowest wealth districts in the state suggest students in low-wealth districts receive significantly less instructional time than their peers in more affluent districts. Based on these results, the study has been expanded to include a study of all school districts Texas. In addition to focusing on data collection, this project afforded the researcher an opportunity to test a new generation of voice recognition software and digital recording technology to assist with transcribing qualitative research data. This technology has proven quite useful although its full potential is still being explored. ItemDisparity in the Distribution of Economic Growth During the High-tech Boom of the 1990's(2004-01) Majumdar, Debarun; Anderson, AudwinThe context of this research is finding explanations for the unequal distribution of economic prosperity in the decade of 1990. This particular decade is of interest because the Austin area experienced an economic boom due to the successes of the hi-tech industries that encompassed various facets of information technology. Although the median family income in Austin increased by a substantial 62%, the poverty declined only by 14% during this period of economic prosperity. The dependent variable is poverty status – whether or not an individual earned below the poverty line. The explanatory variables are race and ethnicity, gender, English proficiency, citizenship, and education level. Analyses were performed using census information from the Public Use Microdata Sample, 2000. The results indicated that African Americans and Latinos had higher levels of poverty compared to whites. English proficiency and poverty levels were related for Latinos. About 62% of Latinos who were not conversant with the English language earned below the poverty level. Lower educational levels appeared to impact the chances of being poor for African Americans the strongest. Almost half of the African Americans with less than high school education earned below the poverty level compared to 28% and 23% for Latinos and whites respectively with similar educational background. This study indicates that language and educational attainment are factors that might have kept certain minority groups from achieving economic success despite a general climate of economic prosperity as observed in the Austin area during the 1990s. ItemRevisiting Contemporary Bully-Proofing and Sexual Harassment Measures: A Prospective Review and Critical Evaluation of Future Concepts for Middle School Campuses(2004-01) Supancic, MichaelThe first stage of this project - a critical analysis of the published literature and existing policy on bullying and sexual harassment in middle schools - is eighty-five percent complete. Two of the three prospective conclusions -- the necessity for grade-level specific curriculum; and a collaborative, non-disciplinary based approach emphasizing the mental health of both the victim and the bully - were, on a theoretical level, partially supported by the culled published research. The second phase -- the analytical assessment and evaluation of an on-going bully-proofing and sexual harassment policy and related grade-level specific curriculum - was temporarily suspended. Several unanticipated District and campus-level policy decisions contributed to this delay. First, District officials decided that only the Principal and one Vice Principal of ___ Middle School would receive specialized training on the implementation and classroom delivery of the bullying and sexual harassment policy. They would then act as the facilitator of a tutorial training workshop for their faculty and staff. Second, the creation of all grade-level curriculum modules and classroom deliverables aimed at preventing and reducing bullying behavior and sexual harassment were given to the campus curriculum team; District' curriculum specialists would only serve in an advisory capacity. Finally, survey results from the three previously administered School Climate Surveys initially administered by a contracted external review group were found to be corrupt at many levels, including use of improper sampling procedures. Such methodological violations rendered these potentially pretest/ benchmark measures of bullying behavior and sexual harassment at ___ Middle School unusable. In summary, no interviews or surveys have been administered nor have any focus groups been convened thus far. On a more positive note, the goals outlined in the plans for the project were unanimously approved as the centerpiece objectives for ___ Middle School's Campus Improvement Plan (CIP) in 2004/2005. ItemExploring Fifth Grade Bilingual Students’ Understanding of Character(2004-01) Czop Assaf, LoriInitially the aim of this qualitative study was to examine how one reading specialist taught character development using series books with ten bilingual students. However, some very surprising issues evolved during this project. First, I discovered that the teacher used very few series books in her reading instruction than previously self-reported. Instead, she mainly relied on testing materials to help her students pass the state mandated test. This shift was caused by a change in the schools' mid-year test scores, lowing the school's rank from a top level of achievement to the lowest level of achievement. Because of this change, this study was expanded to look at how one teacher responded to the testing pressures so deeply engrained in Texas schools. As a participant observer, I spent over 192 hours over 4 months conducting ethnographic research in the teacher's school, collecting field notes and artifacts (Emerson, Fretz, & Shaw, 1995), as well as conducting informal and formal interviews with the teacher, her colleagues, and her students. The teacher was purposefully selected (Patton, 1990/2001) because she was experienced (taught for more than 30 years) considered exemplary by their peers and administrators, and described using series books and teacher-led discussion groups with her students as her main reading instruction. Using grounded theory methodology (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993), I examined the teacher’s talk and the students’ discussions during their reading instruction. I found that the teacher in this study responded to testing pressures by surviving, struggling, and resisting the effects of high-stakes testing and that her responses had much to do with contextual factors of teaching in a low-income urban school. She survived by finding ways to help her students get through the tests without losing their enthusiasm for reading. She struggled with ways to integrate skills-based instruction while reading quality literature. She resisted by creating opportunities to give students free books, have authentic book discussions, and encourage students to become “real readers” instead of “test takers. Implications for this study are that high-stakes testing pressures forced this teacher to change her reading instruction. Instead of focusing on the individual literacy needs of her Bilingual students, she scaled down her instruction to basic skills and testing strategies in order to pass the test and raise the school's rank causing her to question her knowledge and experience as an expert reading teacher. ItemSpecification of Prior Distributions in Bayes Variable Selection(2004-01) Cui, WenIn-depth investigation of the impact of various choices of hyperpriors on Fully Bayes (FB) variable selection procedures was done. For hyper parameter C, the priors studied were incomplete inverse gamma (IIG), a modified Jefferys prior (MJP), RIC point mass prior and two modified RIC point mass priors, linear RIC and exponential RIC. For hyper parameter, uniform prior was adopted. For each of the hyper prior chosen, close-form posteriors and FB selection criteria were developed, and intensive simulations were done to compare the performance among these FB criteria. The simulation results revealed that i) When the number of variables considered is relatively small, say 20 ~ 100, IIG prior and exponential RIC outperformed other FB criteria. And IIG usually does better than exponential RIC for parsimonious models while exponential RIC usually achieve better performance than IIG for saturated models. ii) When the number of variables considered is large, say 500 ~ 1000, exponential RIC provides best performance over broad range of model space. The behavior of IIG is very close to RIC, although its performance is not as good as that of exponential RIC. iii) Regardless the number of variables considered, MJP usually does well when the true model is saturated, but can be worst when the true model is parsimonious. iv) RIC and linear RIC usually favor smaller models over larger models due to much shrinkage they put on the model coefficients, β. ItemUnderstanding Cognitive Musicology: An Edition of, and Introduction to, Otto Laske's Writings on Musical Grammars(2004-01) Schuler, NicoThe goal of this project was the source-critical publication of the first (and only) cognitive-based writings in the area of musical grammars. These were written by Otto Laske, who, although still alive, changed his research direction and now works in the areas of composition as well as clinical psychology. The connection between musical grammar and cognitive research had not been further developed, because all other developments of musical grammars went a different direction. Laske and the international publishing house Peter Lang had invited me to edit his Laske's writings on musical grammar. The project included scanning and editing six extensive essays, adding references to later developments in this area, bibliographical research, and writing an Introduction to Laske's writings. This introduction summarizes Laske's achievements and shows how one can proceed. ItemRole of Oxidative DNA Damage in Telomere Shortening and Cellular Aging(2004-01) Lewis, L. KevinThe major aims of this research proposal were to develop assays for quantitating cellular aging and telomere shortening rates using yeast as a model system and to investigate factors that affect the kinetics of these processes. During the past year we have performed most of the experiments described in the Specific Aims and added additional experiments to clarify some of the results. For example, (a) we have created special yeast strains that have telomerase under the control of a new, regulatable GAL1 promoter and used these to develop assays for monitoring cell senescence, including measurement of changes in cell growth rate, killing and cell cycle checkpoint arrest, (b) we have tested effects of the pro-oxidant chemicals hydrogen peroxide, iron, and bleomycin, as well as the antioxidant chemicals N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol, on cell aging kinetics, and (c) we have constructed yeast strains with antioxidant genes GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase) and CTT1 (catalase) inactivated and evaluated the impact on cell aging. These early experiments have demonstrated that two of the pro-oxidants, bleomycin and iron, can act to accelerate cell senescence. The GPX3 and CTT1 mutations did not affect cell aging, but new mutant strains with multiple antioxidant genes inactivated (e.g. GPX3 + CTT1 as well as three other mutants) are currently being tested. In addition, during the past year we have worked to develop a new, simpler method for quantitating rates of telomeric DNA shortening that is based on the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. ItemComparison of Arc Hydro and SWAT models used in watershed analysis(2004-01) Bryan, Deborah; Curran, JoannaThis project examined the applicability of two of the most common models used in hydrological modeling today: ArcHydro (ArcGIS Hydro Data Model) and SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The models are similar in that each advertises itself as a watershed model with an interface to GlS. The models differ in their choice of governing equations and the way each deals with actual data that may be collected in the watershed. The purpose of the proposed research was to determine which model provided the best representation of a watershed. Data was collected for the Blanco and Guadalupe watersheds and imported into each model. Once the models were run, the results were compared to actual field data to test the accuracy of the models and ease of use. Both models permitted us to simultaneously study various parameters acting on the watersheds. The SWAT model allowed the researchers to incorporate more physical data than the ArcHydro model, resulting in a more accurate depiction of the watershed, especially for smaller watersheds like the Blanco. ArcHydro excels at data management, making it a better choice when large amounts of data need to be collected and included in the model (such as with larger watersheds like the Guadalupe). We found that SWAT better replicates field information. In addition, it allows the researcher more control over the physical processes being modeled. SWAT is easier to use for researchers with little GIS experience. However, for those researchers with GIS programming capabilities, ArcHydro is more flexible. ItemA Community History of Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico: Recovering the Maya Past(2004-01) Juarez, Ana M.I propose to write a community history of early twentieth century Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Tulum was a Maya village that became a key political and religious site for Mayas during the mid nineteenth century Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901). Although the archeological ruins adjacent to the village are now one of Mexico's leading archeological sites and tourist attractions, the history of the adjacent village and its residents remains largely unwritten and unrecorded. Local residents, especially elders, have significant knowledge of the early twentieth century in Tulum, and it is crucial to recover this knowledge as soon as possible. This knowledge will contribute to understanding Maya culture and the socio-political relations that Santa Cruz Mayas had with Mexicans and other outsiders during the first half of the twentieth century. I propose to use oral histories of community elders, members of Tulum's founding families, and a broad range of other people familiar with the region to reconstruct the early twentieth century history of Tulum. I will further use historical photographs to supplement the interviews and evoke memories about socio-political relations and cultural practices. I will ask about a variety of topics, including socio-political relations and military roles, religious structures and ideology, work and economic production, kinship, marriage and family, and education. This research will make a significant contribution to understanding the socio-cultural and political-economic processes that defined and shaped Santa Cruz Maya communities during the first half of the twentieth century. ItemA Study of Organizational Culture in South Texas(2004-01) Wardrope, William; Minifie, JanaHispanics or Latinos are the largest minority of the United States population. The majority of these minorities are concentrated in the Southwest, in which Texas is located. With the continued immigration and the close proximity of Hispanics with Mexico and other Latin American countries, Mexican-Americans have shown retention of their ethnic culture and social forms. This research effort is to determine to what extent Hispanic culture is being incorporated into American organizations. A survey was developed and administered to small businesses in the South Texas region. Based on these results, suggestions are provided to assist American-based cultures in incorporating Hispanic cultures within their organization.